10 psychological tips to help get out of depression
Depressive diseases of the last few years are the most common mental pathology. About 100 million new cases of depression are recorded annually. Emotional depression, loneliness in a crowd, and a sense of the meaninglessness of existence — this is how you can characterize in general terms. How to get out of depression, only a specialist will tell, especially if the condition is prolonged and prevents the person from living fully.
What is depression?
Depression is a mental disorder, accompanied by emotional depression, inability to enjoy life, decreased motor activity and impaired thinking.
A person in a state of depression experiences fatigue and remains in sadness, loses interest in everything that happens. The disease negatively affects the socialization of the individual: the patient avoids communication, his working capacity decreases, his usual course of life is disturbed, the future seems hopeless and bleak.
In addition to psychological signs, the condition can lead to a deterioration in physiological terms with signs of cardiovascular disorders, dizziness and headaches. The main danger that depression entails is suicidal tendencies. According to statistics, about 15% of depressed patients commit suicide. Therefore, it is so important to treat depressed people with understanding, not to consider the disorder as a manifestation of egoism, laziness and pessimism.
Leading causes of the condition
The causes of the violation are combined. The combination of several provoking factors leads to the emergence of a disorder of varying severity.
Most experts associate depression with the characteristics of modern society:
- speed rhythm of life;
- constant stay in stress;
- high population density and lack of prolonged contact with nature;
- lack of physical activity and hypodynamia;
- severe psychological trauma due to the loss of a loved one, shocks, conflicts, etc .;
- seasonal factors, lack of sunlight;
- abuse of alcohol and certain types of drugs;
- psychological and physical exhaustion;
- genetic predisposition;
- unfavorable social environment - lack of support and meaning of life;
- endogenous disorders of the central nervous system - bipolar disorders, Alzheimer's disease, manic-depressive psychosis, atherosclerosis, traumatic brain injuries, etc.
Varieties of depression
Russian psychiatry distinguishes two large groups of depressive states: simple (minor) depression and complex (major) depression.
The group of simple states includes the following types of depression:
- adynamic with physical and emotional inhibition;
- agitated - accompanied by anxiety, agitation, feelings of guilt and fear;
- dysphoric - chronic discontent with outbursts of irritability;
- ironic - deliberately demonstrating a good mood and hiding the true depression;
- stuporous - motor inhibition, which can reach full immobility;
- anxious - a persistent feeling of danger, anxiety, anxiety, depression;
- melancholic - increased tearfulness, deep depression, severe "heartache", accompanied by pain in the heart.
The group of complex depressions includes syndromes with various symptoms and disturbances in the work of the nervous system:
- asthenic - violation of emotionality, inability to express feelings;
- hysterical - a violent manifestation of emotions, an exaggerated attitude to all events;
- Hypochondria - the development of supervaluable ideas, combined with delusions;
- psychasthenic - manifested in complete inhibition, indecision, fearfulness.
One of the varieties is alcohol depression,formed on the background of rejection of alcohol or coding.
Signs of depression
Regardless of the form, the disease encompasses several vital areas. It is the combination of several symptoms that allows doctors to talk about depressive diagnosis and prescribe treatment.
Depression is characterized by an individual course - the symptoms of disorder in different patients may be of the opposite nature (from insomnia to sleepiness, from overeating to complete refusal to eat). The causes of the disease and the psychological characteristics of the patient will determine how to get out of depression.
Emotional disturbances are the most vivid and typical manifestation of a mental disorder. Emotional signs include:
- melancholy, despair, depression;
- mood swings;
- anxiety and non-fading feelings of fear;
- irritability for no apparent reason;
- reduced interest in life;
- low self-esteem, dissatisfaction with themselves and their own lives;
- loss of interest in hobbies;
- difficulties in the expression of feelings and emotions.
This symptom is associated with somatic manifestations - the patient complains of deterioration of health, there are signs of other pathologies.
The most common complaints are:
- trouble sleeping;
- loss of appetite or insatiable desire to consume food;
- disorders in the stomach and intestines;
- decrease or absence of sexual desire;
- weakness and fatigue;
- soreness in the region of the heart, joints, muscle aches.
A patient suffering from depression changes his habitual behavior:
- becomes passive;
- fears public action and large gatherings of people;
- seeking solitude and refusing to communicate;
- loses interest in previously familiar surroundings, friends, family, relatives;
- refuses entertainment.
Disorders in the cognitive sphere
Cognitive disorders associated with impaired thought processes, difficulties in obtaining and processing information.
How does this manifest in a patient:
- cannot concentrate on the simplest task;
- afraid to make decisions;
- becomes inattentive;
- often thinks about death and leads suicidal talk;
- not able to show a sense of humor, joke and laugh;
- thinks only in a pessimistic way.
Differences in the course of depression in men and women
Symptoms of depression in both sexes are generally similar. However, there are differences in the course of male and female depression associated with physiological and psychological gender characteristics.
Depression in women is distinguished by seasonality and a tendency to a protracted course. Signs most often appear in autumn and winter, accompanied by a change in eating behavior. In addition to reduced mood, women complain of autonomic symptoms - pain in the stomach and intestines, discomfort in the heart area.
Of the psychological signs, the most pronounced are the constant feelings for their fate and loved ones, anxiety, fear of failure, rapid fatigue, and permanent tension.
However, the way out of depression in women is less difficult than in men. Representatives of the weaker are more attentive to their own health and promptly seek medical help.
Men are protected from depression by the hormone testosterone, so the stronger sex suffers from depression three times less. The treachery of male depression lies in the fact that patients are not inclined to notice signs of the disease in themselves, preferring to be treated on their own with cigarettes and alcohol. They do not recognize the traditional treatment of psychological problems, consider depression a sign of weakness and do not rush to the doctor.
Signs of male depression are increased fatigue, irritability, loss of interest in work and hobbies, sleep disturbances.
How to get out of depression on your own: tips of psychologists
How to get out of depression yourself? If the disease is outlined in a short minor form, you can use a simple psychotherapeutic approach available to everyone. To successfully get rid of the disorder, it is necessary to clearly understand the cause of its occurrence and treat self-healing with full responsibility.
Psychologists recommend using these tips.
- Take responsibility for yourself, decide to change at a deep level.
- Use affirmations are short affirmative phrases with a positive attitude.
- Avoid privacy, strive to contact with others.
- Do not refuse the help of friends and relatives, do not withdraw into yourself.
- Turn to spiritual food - the works of philosophers and writers, life-affirming films.
- Completely eliminate alcohol, nicotine and psychoactive substances.
- Change your daily routine and settle your sleep.
- To show love to close people, to strive to bring them joy and help unselfishly.
- Attend exciting activities, get new hobbies or return to old interests.
Treatment of depression
If depression is associated with severe injuries, serious disorders of the central nervous system, you should contact a narrow specialist - a psychotherapist. A good therapeutic effect gives an integrated approach: a combination of drugs, psychotherapy, physiotherapy and physiotherapy.
The main pharmacological drugs to combat depression are antidepressants. They stimulate the body to produce nerve impulses responsible for mood, behavior and activity.
Treatment of depression is carried out by four generations of drugs.
- Medications of tricyclic structure - Amitriptyline, Imipramine. They are used only for severe forms in a hospital.
- Preparations of the second generation - Befol, Pyrazidol. They have a calming effect, but will not help to cope with severe depressive disorders.
- The means of the third generation - Tsitalopram, Fluoxetine. They activate the production of the hormone of happiness, serotonin, successfully stop panic attacks and phobias.
- The fourth generation of antidepressants is Duloxetine, Milnacipran. They have a selective effect on serotonin and norepinephrine, without blocking the function of other neurotransmitters.
In severe cases, antidepressants are combined with tranquilizers, antipsychotics and nootropics. Tranquilizers are effective in anxiety, they calm and help fight fears. Neuroleptics are used in suicidal patients with depressions with pronounced delusional ideas.Nootropics have stimulating properties, restore the work of the nervous system, help in the fight against nervous exhaustion, apathy, lethargy and increased fatigue.
Depression psychotherapy involves the use of certain methods of psychocorrection depending on the pathogenesis and the course of the disease. Therapy is aimed at teaching the patient to cope with depressive symptoms, solve important life issues, control emotions and conditions that inevitably lead to depression.
The following types of psychotherapy are recognized as the most effective:
- cognitive-behavioral - is aimed at correcting errors in behavior that lead to depressive disorder;
- interpersonal - helps to shape the patient’s healthy relationships with other people;
- psychodynamic - aimed at finding the internal conflict underlying pathology.
Aromatherapy, art therapy, bibliotherapy, self-hypnosis and hypnosis methods are also used to combat depression.
At the first symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to take decisive measures so that the emotional state does not worsen. In the off-season in the room should be a lot of light and a large number of lighting devices. Frequent walks in the fresh air, daily gymnastics and feasible sports will help.
To strengthen the body and the spirit in a tone are capable of fortifying agents - rosehip decoction, herbal tea, ginger, and healing balms. You should maximize your life with healthy positive emotions - do your favorite things, watch good movies and indulge yourself with pleasant shopping.
Depression is not just a blues and a bad mood. This is a serious disease that leads to dangerous disorders at the physiological level. Only a qualified doctor will tell you how to get out of depression, help you find the meaning of life and take a fresh look at the world.