Agriculture. Russian agriculture
Russia is a huge state whose borders stretch more than seventeen million square kilometers. The first in the world in the territory of the country has the richest natural resources, fertile soils and forests, rivers and lakes, pastures and meadows. Russia has tremendous potential for agricultural activities. This is a priority area, which today began to pay close attention. That is why today we want to talk about agriculture. The branches of agriculture, the priority directions of their development - all this is valuable information for those who want to link their future with natural production.
To date, there are a huge number of areas in which you can move and develop, producing a particular product and implementing it to the relevant consumers.At the same time, it is in Russia with its vast areas and resources that the least developed area is agriculture. The branches of agriculture are constantly evolving, new ones are emerging, which means that every businessman has the opportunity to choose the niche he likes best.
So, from time immemorial in this huge sector there are two macro-industry complexes. This crop and livestock. In turn, each of them will be divided into dozens of industries. A distinctive feature of agricultural activity is a high dependence on external factors, in particular on agro-climatic conditions. It is they who determine not only the geography, but also the specialization of production. If you decide to run your own business, then think about the prospects that agriculture offers to you. There are various branches of agriculture, from traditional to exotic in the form of pineapple plantations and shrimp farms. But they all share one factor. Produced product will always be in demand.
Crop as a branch of agriculture
Many thousands of years ago, man learned to cultivate the land and plant the seeds found in order to get a big harvest of the same crop. Since then, farming has not lost its relevance. Multi-kilometer hectares of land sown by various plants — this is how many of us represent agriculture. Agricultural sectors can be very diverse, they are distinguished by the number of necessary investments and profitability. But all crops grown are important and needed.
In which areas is developed
In general, land for arable land is given in the forest-steppe and steppe zones of the country.Agriculturehas pronounced zonality. This is understandable: growing beets or potatoes in the tundra is very problematic. But this is not the only reason. The problems of the development of agricultural sectors are that without the immediate proximity of the end user, there can be only large farms that can export their products to cities. Therefore, a suburban type of agriculture has developed near large population centers.And in the northern regions, agriculture is developing in greenhouses.
The European part of Russia is the most favorable region. Here agricultural areas are located in a continuous strip. In Western Siberia, they are only in the southern regions, in the valleys of the Altai. The central area is an ideal place for growing beets and potatoes, flax and legumes. Wheat is grown in the Central and Volga-Vyatka region, in the Volga region and in the Urals, in the Caucasus. In more northern regions, rye and barley are sown.
Features of domestic crop production
It is in Russia that more than 1% of all arable land in the world is located. Huge territories, different climatic zones - all this allows the country to be an exporter of various cultures. Crop as a branch of agriculture specializes in the cultivation of useful, cultivated plants. It is based on grain farming. Grain is a product that is most in demand on the world market. More than half of the total cultivated area in Russia is occupied by grain crops. And of course, wheat is the leader among them.
Agriculture in Russia is, first of all, golden fields, on which future breads are spiked. Hard and soft varieties are grown.The first go to the manufacture of bakery products, and the second - on pasta. Winter and spring varieties are grown in Russia, with a total capacity of 47 million tons.
In addition to wheat, agriculture in Russia is the world's largest exporter of other grains and legumes, sugar beet and sunflower, potatoes and flax.
Grassland is an important branch of crop production.
Not everyone will remember the importance of growing meadow grass for hay. And after all, it is the basis of feed for livestock. Today, grazing lands are being reduced, and even private livestock farms buy hay for their animals at once for the whole season. And what about the large farms, where animals do not leave the stall.
Grassland as a branch of agriculture today is still quite undeveloped. Entrepreneurs prefer to simply buy or rent the land and in time produce bevel grass grown on it. However, if you take advantage of the achievements of modern agrotechnical science, you can get a rich variety of herbs, which means you can mow more hay from a smaller plot of land. But that's not all.Targeted sowing of land with the necessary herbs, as well as the use of modern dressings, allow mowing young and succulent grass many times in a row from the same area. There is a saving of useful space and an obvious benefit.
Not all plants are eaten, but this does not make them less useful. Cotton growing is becoming increasingly popular in Russia today. The branch of agriculture is quite new for our latitudes, but it has great prospects. Of course, the need for natural fabrics is only increasing.
The best for the cultivation of this culture is the climate of the Stavropol Territory. In fact, this is not a new direction of crop production. In the 1930s, more than 120 thousand hectares of cotton were cultivated here. The harvest was more than 60 thousand tons of raw cotton. Today this practice is being revived in the region, although it has not yet reached such a scale.
The second big section is animal husbandry.
Most entrepreneurs decide to take up exactly the farm, considering this area more profitable.Indeed, meat, milk, eggs and valuable furs are sold very quickly, at a decent price. But do not forget that livestock is a branch of agriculture, which will require you to have special knowledge, extensive experience and the help of professional livestock specialists. Any mistake is worth a lot of money. Poor quality food will lead to poor growth of young animals, the delay in vaccination can cause the death of animals.
Features of livestock in Russia
All countries are in one way or another exporters of meat and other food products. This is not surprising, since livestock is the branch of agriculture that is most in demand. Quality food will never be left without its end user. At the same time, in the vast expanses of Russia, animal husbandry is completely dependent on crop production, since it is this industry that is a natural producer of feed. Therefore, each region specializes in the cultivation of a particular animal species.
Reindeer breeding is well developed in the North. In the central zone of Russia, cattle breeding of both dairy and dairy-meat types is widely represented. In the more southern areas, mainly small livestock are bred for meat.This is due to the presence of more coarse feed. In mountainous areas goats and sheep are bred.
Continuing to consider what are the branches of agriculture, we do not cease to wonder how many options animal husbandry offers to businessmen. Almost all over the country pig breeding is well developed. This is one of the most productive sectors of the livestock complex. This is due to the fact that pigs are growing rapidly, unpretentious, and their meat is habitual and even preferred in Russia.
Horse breeding is a traditional branch in the Kuban and in the Don region. And we are talking about breeding. Today this industry is experiencing a decline, although it is very promising. In suburban areas, as well as in the cities themselves, poultry farming is almost universally developed. Here there are several areas:
- Breeding birds on the feather (down).
- For meat.
- On the egg.
Depending on the choice of the entrepreneur, they are engaged in growing chickens, geese and ducks. However, today there are new branches in agriculture. Some farms were converted to ostrich or peacock farms. This is a completely new direction, so livestock breeders have to learn all the subtleties of the content from scratch.
In the forest areas, which are more than enough in Russia, fur farming is developed. To this end, the huntsman start a mink and fox, sable. In vivo capture of squirrels, martens and beavers.
Beekeeping: features and prospects
Beekeeping products are very popular, if you even have a few hives, they will bring a steady income. However, do not be too flustered. Beekeeping is a branch of agriculture that requires considerable experience and knowledge. In addition, to get a really valuable product, you must live in an ecologically clean area, preferably in the mountains, where there are luxurious meadows nearby. Professional beekeepers allocate an area of 120 square meters for an apiary.
In fact, the state of this industry in our country is far from ideal. Despite the huge areas, Russia produces much less honey than, for example, Mexico. Although luxurious meadows with honey plants, we have fruit trees in abundance. That is, there is a basis for the development of beekeeping in our country; you only need to realize the potential of your natural abilities.And this can be done only as a result of investments in this industry, as well as the creation of special training centers. After all, only strict adherence to technology allows the beekeeping industry, year after year, not only to preserve, but also to multiply the number of families, and hence the volume of the resulting products.
To date, the need for high-quality honey in the market is about one million tons per year, and the existing farms provide only 200 tons. That is, a shortage of fresh honey is observed in almost all regions. It is covered by imports, so there is much to grow.
Acute shortage of honey leads to the fact that traders implement a fake, which prevents the correct formation of prices for finished products. Of course, it beats the budding beginner beekeeper. Few people know that beekeeping in our country is an extremely profitable business. Only 15-20 families are enough to be in profit at the end of the season. However, we don’t have any state support of beekeeping, like, for example, in Europe. Therefore, a novice businessman is left alone with the problems that arise.They are completely solvable, but time and money are needed.
Fishery in Russia
No, we are not going to talk about lovers who are ready to sit with fishing rods along the banks of rivers and reservoirs all the weekend. We are interested in fishing as a branch of agriculture. It is customary to think that fishing is made somewhere on the shores of China, India and Japan, where there are delicious sea dwellers, and their prey brings fabulous money. But even in Russia, fish are produced regularly. To do this, go to the sea specialized minesweepers. They return to the ports with rich prey, which is distributed in a fresh or frozen form or is used to prepare canned food.
Among the commercial fish that are caught in Russia, emit red (salmon, white salmon) and white (pike, zander, catfish and carp, crucian carp). The most important commercial fish belong to the herring and cod family. Fish of the carp, salmon and sturgeon family are of great commercial importance.
In fact, in Russia, this branch of agriculture is not very developed. This is primarily due to climatic features.But today paid ponds began to receive increasing popularity. These are artificial reservoirs that are regularly stocked with certain types of underwater inhabitants. For a fee, you can spend a few hours or even days on such a reservoir and catch the coveted trophy.
Fish farming includes such activities as breeding at all stages of the life cycle, growing and maintaining broodstock. Equally important are such activities as acclimatization and selection.
Why is the potential not realized today?
Indeed, involuntarily ask yourself this question. All branches of agriculture in the world are more developed than in Russia, despite the richest resources and vast areas. Why is this happening? According to experts, the field of agricultural business today has four main problems:
- Climatic features. Our country is the only one in the world, which includes eight natural and climatic zones. Only 30% of the territory of Russia has a favorable and relatively predictable climate, which makes it possible to engage in agriculture without risk.
- Financing.If in European countries the state sponsors a start-up business and takes on some of the risks associated with its development, then our crediting of the peasant economy is extremely bad.
- Deficit of agricultural machinery park. Most small farms are forced to partially or fully use manual labor, since they cannot afford to purchase equipment.
- Management factors. Often at the head of a peasant farm there is a person who does not have an agricultural or veterinary education. As a result, the effectiveness of the activity, and consequently, the profitability, is much lower.
As you can see, a lot of problems. However, the domestic manufacturer is used to overcome difficulties. If even in such conditions, people achieve good results, it means that this niche in the market is free and you can safely try to realize yourself in it.
Instead of conclusion
Agriculture as a branch of the economy is a large complex aimed at providing the population with food and clothing. The most important industry, it is a reflection of the development of the state as a whole. After all, the satisfaction of the basic needs of the population is the priority tasks of any country.Russia has tremendous potential to provide products not only to its citizens, but also to export them. However, today many branches of agriculture are experiencing problems. It should be noted that the government today has drawn attention to this trend and is making an effort to remedy the situation, so Russia can expect big changes. In fact, the future development of the country depends on the level of personnel training, as well as on agricultural subsidies.