Alexander Shcherbakov, Soviet state and party leader: biography, family
Alexander Shcherbakov - Colonel-General and famous party functionary. He was one of Stalin’s trustees. About his personality, you can hear a variety of memoirs of his contemporaries. During the Second World War, he held many posts. Moreover, even when the enemy came close to the capital, Shcherbakov did not succumb to the panic that gripped many of his colleagues. At the same time, many prominent members of the intelligentsia considered him one of the ideologists of the anti-Semitic hysteria of the war and post-war period, and Korney Chukovsky christened him a Stalin bastard.
Shcherbakov Alexander Sergeevich was born in 1901 in the city of Ruza, in a working class family. After some time, he and his parents moved to Rybinsk. Like other boys of proletarian origin, Alexander began working at the age of 11.At first he got a job as a distributor of newspapers, then a folder in the printing house, and later was a worker on the railway.
Dmitry enthusiastically met the news of the revolutionary events in Petrograd and in 1917, being a 16-year-old boy, joined the Red Guard. A year later, he was accepted into the Komsomol and sent to work through the RKSM, first in Rybinsk, and then in Moscow, where he soon became a member of the Central Committee of this organization. At the end of 1918, Shcherbakov joined the Communist Party and remained a staunch communist until the end of his life.
Work in the hardware
In 1924, Alexander Shcherbakov graduated from the Communist University. Y. Sverdlov. For the next 6 years he worked in various positions in the party equipment of the Nizhny Novgorod province (head of department and secretary of the district committee, head of the department of the provincial committee of the KP, secretary of the district committee, etc.).
In 1930, Shcherbakov was sent to study at the Institute of Red Professors, and after his graduation he was transferred to work in the Central Committee apparatus. There he managed to get into the field of view of Stalin and fairly quickly enter into his confidence.
Work in the Writers Union
In 1934, Stalin needed a reliable person to monitor the actions of Maxim Gorky.Shcherbakov seemed to him a suitable candidate. On his recommendation, he was elected first secretary of the Writers' Union. Thus, Maxim Gorky, who was the chairman of this organization, began to head it only formally, and Stalin’s commissar decided all administrative, political and economic issues. To get on with famous wards Shcherbakov was not easy. However, when he once complained to the “master” about the difficult nature of the literary fraternity, Stalin replied that he had no other writers in the country and needed to work with those who exist.
Relations with Gorky and a trip to Paris
In one of his letters to Stalin, Alexander Shcherbakov reports on the difficulties in working with the great proletarian writer, who “makes mistakes”, underestimating the role of communist writers. At the same time, the Commissioner of the Writers' Union reports that he still managed to overcome the coldness of Gorky, and he listens to his advice.
In the summer of 1935, the International Writers' Congress in Defense of Culture was held in the French capital. The Soviet delegation, which included M. Koltsov, I. Ehrenburg, N. Tikhonov, A. Tolstoy, B. Pasternak, G. Tabidze and I.Mykytenko, headed by Alexander Shcherbakov.
In the years 1936-1940
In 1936, Shcherbakov was sent to Leningrad by the 2nd secretary of the KP regional committee. The direct chief of Alexander Sergeyevich in this post was Zhdanov. In 1937–1938, he was appointed to head the East-Siberian (Irkutsk) Regional Party Committee, where he “successfully” conducted a massive purge of personnel, accusing local communists of organizing a Trotsky-right counter-revolutionary organization.
For activity and integrity in the fight against enemies in 1938, Alexander Sergeevich was appointed first secretary of the Stalin’s (now Donetsk region) regional party committee. In this post, he replaced the Latvian E. Pramnaka, declared an enemy of the people. The next career height, which was taken without assault by Shcherbakov, was the post of first secretary of the MK and CIM. Previously, the arrested “pest” A. Ugarov was removed from them, who was accused of sabotage, which caused difficulties with the delivery of vegetables and potatoes to the capital.
At the same time, Stalin’s confidence was not unlimited, and under Shcherbakov, D.M. Popov.
Before the war
The flawless party biography of Alexander Shcherbakov in 1940 was under threat, although he made every effort to please Stalin.In 1940, he was nearly removed from his post for failing to fulfill the state plan by Moscow aviation plants. However, the storm passed by. A. Shcherbakov was saved by the fact that the capital industry was under the authority of the 2nd secretary Popov.
In 1941, Alexander Sergeevich waited even greater career takeoff. In early May, he became secretary of the Central Committee, then a candidate member of the Politburo and the head of the Soviet Information Bureau.
During the Second World War
When in 1941 the enemy was on the outskirts of the capital, Shcherbakov showed enviable courage, and with his tough and energetic actions forced many fellow citizens to stop the panic. On October 17, he spoke on the radio, called upon Muscovites to defend his hometown to the last drop of blood, and then began with an iron hand to thwart attempts by some party functionaries to leave the capital.
In June 1942, A.S. Shcherbakov was appointed to the post of chief of the Main Political Department of the Red Army. Along with this, in 1942-1943 he was already the deputy commander of the defense of the USSR, and in 1943-1945 he also served as head of the international information department of the Central Committee. Despite high military ranks, Alexander Sergeevich was an office worker and even at the height of the war he avoided going to the front.Many facts confirm his active participation in the anti-Semitic company that swept the country in the last years of the war.
Alexander Shcherbakov (deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and Colonel-General) died of a massive heart attack on the night of May 10, 1945 after a feast with colleagues. His ashes were cremated and placed in the Kremlin wall. In his honor until 1957, the city of Rybinsk was called Shcherbakov.
Alexander Shcherbakov was married. His wifeVera Konstantinovna Scherbakova - a communications engineer. In marriage they had three sons:
- Alexander - test pilot;
- Konstantin is a Russian film expert and writer;
- Ivan is a physicist.
Now you know about the biography of one of the youngest Stalin "grandees". Name AS Shcherbakov forever inscribed in the history of the USSR.