Alexey Adashev: a characteristic of a historical person
Alexey Adashev with his brother and father had a special influence on Ivan the Terrible. At one time they managed to become the actual leaders of the state. However, as often happens, the rapid rise ended with the same lightning-fast fall.
Rod Adashevyh of the king's best friends turned into dangerous traitors. This ruined the representatives of the genus. The rulers often settled scores with their best advisers.
Fedor Adashev - father of the family
Alexey Adashev was the son of Fyodor Grigorievich, who lived in the sixteenth century. For the first time it is mentioned in the letter for 1510. In it, he put his signature instead of his father. From an early age he went to the grand-ducal service. He practically did not move up the career ladder, for some time he was a steward. In 1538, he was entrusted to head the Moscow embassy in Constantinople.
- described with the prince Dashkov Zamoskovsky parish;
- became okolnichim (1547 year);
- accompanied the tsar during the first campaign to Kazan;
- guarded and monitored the construction of the fortress Sviyazhsk.
Fyodor Grigorievich died in 1556. Before his death, he took monasticism, he was given the name Arseny.
Adashev had two sons - Alex and Daniel. During the infancy of Ivan Vasilyevich, Fedor Grigorievich was able to arrange his sons as solicitors. They were supposed to help the sovereign's bedding. This brought the brothers closer to the Grand Duke.
The first mention of Alexey
The name Alexey Adashev was first mentioned in 1547. With his brother, he held the position of moan, movnik. During the wedding of Ivan the Terrible, they prepared a marriage bed for the ruler, accompanied him to the bath.
Alexey Adashev at Ivan the Terrible
Alexey was familiar with the king from a young age. Subsequently, together with the famous priest Sylvestre, one of the brothers received a great influence on the king. It happened in 1547 after a series of Moscow fires and the murder of Yuri Glinsky.
The death at the hands of the infuriated people of the uncle of the prince produced a moral revolution in the soul of the young ruler. Then Ivan Vasilievich brought Alexis and Sylvestre closer to him.In them, as well as in the Metropolitan of Macarius and the queen Anastasia, the king found moral support.
Alexey Adashev (life years 1510-1561) informally managed public affairs with Sylvester. In 1550 the tsar granted Aleksei Fyodorovich to okolnichie.
The significance of Alexey and Sylvester at the court was not liked by everyone. Their main enemies were relatives of Queen Anastasia - Zakharyins. They managed to take advantage of the king's disease in 1553. They laid in the mind of the ruler a note of distrust towards their advisers.
During his time of serious illness, the king wished the boyars, Prince Staritsky and other close people to take the oath to the child Dmitry (the son of Ivan the Terrible). The cousin of the king refused to take the oath because he saw himself as heir to the throne. Just like Staritsky did Sylvester and senior Adashev. Okolnichy Fyodor said to the tsar that he did not want to obey the Romanovs, who were to rule the state during the early childhood of Dmitry. Alexey is the only one who swore oath to Dmitry, but this role no longer played.
Ivan Vasilyevich recovered from the disease. He began to look at his friends differently, remembering their betrayal.The location of Queen Anastasia was also lost, because her son was not wanted to see the throne. The king did not take any action against the Sylvester and the Adashevs. Perhaps he was glad to recover or was not ready to break the old relationship. He even granted Fyodor Adashev a boyar hat.
Everything changed after the trip of Ivan the Terrible to the Kirillo-Belozersky monastery. The king took with him Anastasia with Dmitry, who drowned during the trip. The king met with Vassan Toporkov (former Kolomna lord), as a result of which Ivan Vasilyevich again doubted Silvestre.
After that, the king no longer trusted his former advisers. His painful suspicion was set on fire by Sylvester's enemies. Gradually, Ivan the Terrible broke off relations with Adashev and Sylvester.
Biography of Alexey Adasheva changed in 1560. Understanding the inclination of the king to himself, he decided to go to the honorary exile (to serve as the third commander) in Livonia. The leaders of the large regiment were Prince Mstislavsky and Morozov.
In the same year, Queen Anastasia died. The conspirators, who opposed Adashev, convinced the king that it was the son of Fyodor Grigorievich who was behind the death of his wife. This reinforced distrust of Alexis in the king.He ordered to transfer Alexei to Dorpat to put him in custody. In prison, Alexey fell ill and two months later he was gone. If Alexey Adashev had not died his own death, he would still be waiting for reprisals from the king. Although the death of Adasheva also raises many questions from researchers.
After the death of Alexei, the king dealt with his relatives. They were executed, and the genus Adashevykh interrupted. The last to die was Daniel Fyodorovich Adashev in 1562. He outlived his brother by just one year. What is famous Alexey Fedorovich?
As head of the Chosen are pleased
Alexey Adashev’s characteristics will not be complete without a description of his activities. First of all, he was engaged in public service. He came from a not very noble family of Kostroma nobles. He started with a solicitor, then he became a bed nick, and he headed a petition order. Taking complaints from oppressed people, he has established himself as an incorruptible employee. He punished those who created a red tape in the orders, even if it was the boyars. From 1550 he headed the Finance Ministry.
He became famous as the head of the Elected Rada.This was the name of the unofficial meeting of people who carried out transformations in the state during the reign of Ivan the Terrible.
The following reforms are associated with the name of Alexei:
- The holding of the Zemsky Sobor is a meeting of representatives of free layers of the population for the consideration of important issues for the state. It was first held in 1549.
- The holding of the Stoglav Cathedral was attended by representatives of the clergy, the Boyar Duma and personally Ivan Vasilyevich.
- Cancellation of feedings - officials under Ivan the Terrible were not kept at the expense of the local population. This marked the beginning of a restructuring of the management system. The feeders began to be forced out on the ground, yielding to the nobility and the central government. However, many historians claim that the cancellation of feedings was not long.
- Drawing up the Code of Laws - a collection of laws. Contained a hundred articles. He eliminated the judicial privileges of many princes.
The king trusted Adashev so much that he kept the state seal with a personal archive. All this strengthened the power of Ivan the Terrible, strengthened the power of the Russian state.
The historical portrait of Alexei Adashev is also associated with military affairs.He led the army in some campaigns that led the king. He took an active part in the conquest of the Kazan Khanate in 1552. Alexey personally put the cannons directed against Kazan, made a tunnel in the cache, from which Kazan extracted water during the siege of the city.
He was engaged in foreign policy of the state, headed the diplomatic part of joining the Moscow kingdom of significant territories - Kazan and Astrakhan. He was the one who suggested that the sovereign direct a policy toward the annexation of the Crimean Khanate, but he decided to start the Levonian war. Then Adashev joined the Livonian War, following the orders of the king. He actively assisted in the war as a military leader and diplomat. However, the suspicion of the sovereign and intrigue on the part of the enemies led Alexei to Dorpat, which hastened his death.
Recognition of Adashev in Russia
Alexey Fyodorovich Adashev, whose biography is connected with the reign of Ivan the Terrible, was one of the brightest statesmen in Russian history. He participated in reforming the state, strengthening its power.
Modern Russia remembers these merits.No wonder Adashev was depicted on the monument of Mikeshin called “1000th anniversary of Russia”. It was created in Novgorod in 1862.