Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Many people know the group "Butyrka". “Butyrskaya Prison” is one of her most famous songs. Many people know it, especially for older people. Although some young people do not mind listening to the songs of the group "Butyrka" (Butyrka Prison "," News "and others).

To many, these compositions also remind of detention center No. 2. It is considered the largest in the city of Moscow. Where is Butyrskaya prison? It is located in Tverskoy district on Novoslobodskaya street.

The prison building, which is located near the town square, formed on the site of the observation post of Kamer-Kollezhsky Val, is considered an architectural monument of the capital.

History Butyrskaya prison. A photo

address of the Butyr prison

During her reign, Catherine II, by her decree, ordered the construction of a barracks building for a hussar regiment with a prison in the Butyrsky hamlet.

At the request of the Russian Field Marshal Zakhara Chernyshev, who was then Governor-General of Moscow, the Empress in 1771 gave a written consent to the construction of a stone prison on the site of the dismantled wooden stronghold, which plays the role of temporary detention.

A draft of the proposed building was attached to the letter. It was designed by Russian architect Matvey Kozakov. Taken as a basis, the designed prison ensemble was a main building, around which four towers were located, connected by a stone wall.

By 1792, the construction of the prison complex was completed. After 76 years, the prison lock officially began to carry the name “Central Shipping Prison”.

At that time, workshops were functioning on the prison territory, where prisoners worked for the manufacture of various household items. Products made of beech wood bent under steam (Viennese furniture) were in special demand.

The prison authorities set up a charitable Sergiev-Elisavetinsky institution for wives, who voluntarily agreed to follow the exiled relatives and husbands to Siberia.An interesting fact: in 1873, a group of prisoners was discovered who in the metalworking workshops made fake coins of the tsarist coinage.

Butyrskaya prison in Moscow

From 1877 and for two years, the prison complex was rebuilt according to the design of Russian architect Alexander Shimanovsky. New additions to the main building were erected. Since 1881, the capital prison served as a transfer point for political prisoners before being sent to Siberian hard labor.

Historical figures

Historical documents show that in 1874 Russian revolutionary Yegor Lazarev was transferred from Samara to Butyrka prison, arrested for participating in the “Going to the People” student movement and revolutionary activities in the “Narodnaya Volya” organization.

At one time he was acquainted with the writer Leo Tolstoy, who by this time had decided to write a novel about social injustice in Russia. To this end, in 1884, he visited his close acquaintance, prisoner Lazarev, and 15 years later he came to the capital's prison to work with the convicts sentenced to various terms of hard labor from Butyrskaya prison to Nikolayevsky station (now the station is called "Leningradsky" ).As a result, this path was reflected in the novel “Sunday”, and Egor Lazarev became a real person for the creation of the literary hero of the revolutionary Nabatov.

During the armed uprising, which took place in Moscow in 1905, the tram park workers tried to free political prisoners of Butyrskaya prison, but the attack on the prison building ended in failure: they were repulsed by a convoy team and disarmed. Many were arrested and placed in prison dungeons.

An interesting fact: in 1908, the famous American philanthropist and magician Harry Houdini spoke in front of the prisoners in Butyrskaya prison. The artist, shackled and placed in a transport box, built to transport prisoners from Moscow to the place of hard labor, managed to get free in 28 minutes, overcoming all difficulties.

According to the surviving prison documents, historians have established that in the period 1905-1910 many historical personalities of Russia were kept in the prison of the capital. Among them was Ivan Kalyaev, a Russian terrorist and organizer of the murder of Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich Romanov (the fifth son of Alexander II).

The participant of the revolutionary actions of 1905, Nikolay Shmit, died before the trial in Butyrka's prison dungeons in 1907.It is noteworthy that in his will he transferred all his fortune to the struggle with the existing royal regime. In 1909, the poet Vladimir Mayakovsky was arrested and placed in Butyrka for revolutionary activities. He spent 11 months in dungeons.

In Odessa, the Ukrainian politician Nestor Makhno was brought from Odessa to the convict department of the Butyrskaya prison in 1911, after sentencing an unlimited penal servitude for the murder of an employee of the military commander's office. After the revolutionary events of 1917, he was released and continued to engage in political activities. Together with Makhno, the future chairman of the Cheka, Felix Dzerzhinsky, was released.

Butyrsky institution after the revolution

After 1917, the complex of buildings continued to play the role of an investigative and transfer prison. In 1932, the Church of the Intercession, which functioned in the main building since 1782, was closed.

Prison in the years of political repression

During the period of mass political persecution (1937–1939), the prose writer and poet Varlam Shalamov was convicted in the prison in 1937 after being denounced for counter-revolutionary activities.

In 1939, the future General Designer of Spaceships, Sergey Korolev, was sent to the cells of Butyrskaya Prison as an organizer of sabotage at the Reaction Institute.Five years later he was released with the removal of a criminal record.

In 1934, the writer and poet Osip Mandelstam, accused of anti-Soviet activities, which, according to investigators, sounded in his literary works, was sent to Butyrka prison for some time before being sent to Vorkuta.

The prison documents of that period include prisoner Boris Fomin, a composer of the Russian romance, who was falsely charged to a one-year prison in the capital.

During World War II, all prisoners in prisons worked in closed, equipped workshops for the needs of the front.

Pre-trial detention center nowadays

prison in Moscow

The construction of the complex was determined outside the city limits. But since Moscow was upset, the prison was practically in the center of the capital.

Now the Butyrsky prison complex is officially considered to be the investigative isolator of the city of Moscow.

The prison area consists of 18 three-storey buildings, which are designed for 435 cells (101 of them are 72 m² in size). In addition, in Butyrka there are 32 specially insulated cells (punishment cells) to isolate prisoners who violate the established rules.

In detention facility No. 2 (Butyrka prison) there can be up to 3,500 people. At the moment, it contains about 2,700 suspects. Since 1992, the church service again takes place in the Orthodox Peter's Church.

Butyrka prison in the city of Moscow

The first prisoner of Butyrka

According to historical documents, the first prisoner of the Butyrka prison in Moscow was the leader of the Peasant Uprising, the Don Cossack Yemelyan Pugachev. At the end of 1774 the rebellion was crushed. Then Pugachev was arrested. After he was taken to Moscow and placed in one of the towers of Butyrskaya prison.

Before the execution of the death sentence, the prisoner was kept in a cage under heavy guard. Now this tower is called Pugachevskaya, and the cell is located in the Moscow Historical Museum.

History of shoots

where is the Butyrka prison

Until 1905 there was no escape from the Butyrka prison. From 1905, and for the next eight years, two successful escapes were committed.

In the post-Soviet period, eight shoots from the Butyrsky remand prison were recorded. In 1992, a successful escape was carried out by two persons under investigation in a criminal case.

Four years later, two prisoners, walking along the prison courtyard, turned down the bars and, using a previously prepared rope, went down from the roof to the street.

In 2000, the organizer of a Georgian criminal gang, who was caught several days later, fled from the investigator’s office. In 2001, after his meeting with his mother, the accused Ivan Vinogradov, in the case of an attack on a police officer, went to the checkpoint and, presenting a fake ID of the investigator who was previously made in prison workshops, calmly went outside, but was caught several days later .

In 2010, a resident of Belarus Vitaly Ostrovsky, suspected of a series of thefts in his own country and hiding in Russia, made a phenomenal escape from custody. The escape was carried out during convoy along the prison corridor. Ostrovsky, pushing the escort guard aside, jumped over the five-meter grid and left the prison territory.

This escape he succeeded, as he was the champion of Belarus to overcome the obstacles of urban space (parkour). Ostrovsky was caught in Finland two years later.

The most famous escape

The most resonant escape from the Butyrskaya prison is the flight from a specially guarded cell of three prisoners sentenced to life imprisonment for committing several murders on the territory of Russia.

For several days, they dug a hole in the cement floor with aluminum spoons, through which they fell into the water supply collector, and through a pipe got out onto the street outside the prison.

Two criminals were caught in the Moscow region three weeks after their escape. The third (the organizer of the escape) was caught two years later.

Museum in the "Pugachev" tower

Butyrka prison today

Since 1971, the museum began to operate, which contains original documents related to the history of Butyrsky prison, products made by prisoners in different years of the prison lock, and many other exhibits.

The museum was created in the year of the 200th anniversary of the start of construction and is located on the third floor of the Pugachev tower. The expositions are located in the premises of the former cells, where in past times political prisoners of tsarist Russia were kept. You can visit the museum only as part of an excursion group. Entry into the territory of children under 14 years is prohibited.

How to get to the monument of architecture?

The address of Butyrskaya Prison is known to many residents of the capital. But for guests of the city such information may be useful.Therefore, the address of Butyrskaya Prison should be recalled: Moscow, Novoslobodskaya Street, 45.

The detention facility is located 4 km from the center of the capital. To get to the monument of architecture, you can use the Moscow metro. You must drive to the station "Mendeleevskaya" (380 m to the prison) or "Novoslobodskaya" (800 meters).

where is the Butyr prison in Moscow

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Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

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Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners

Butyrskaya Prison: photos, location, history and famous prisoners