Endoscopic examinations: methods, patient preparation, features of the procedure
One of the most informative types of research is endoscopic, which helps to accurately diagnose many diseases. This method allows not only to inspect the organs from the inside, but also to take the biomaterial for analysis, to introduce drugs, to remove tumors.
Endoscopic studies are understood as a whole group of instrumental diagnostic measures, during which you can study the necessary organ.
This procedure is performed using a metal rigid or plastic flexible endoscope, at the end of which there is a small camera.
1806 was marked by the appearance of the first endoscope, the creator of which was Philip Bozzini (Austria). In the first device there was no camera familiar to the modern man - a regular candle was attached to the end of the wire.The endoscope did not find practical application - the Austrian medical community brought down a squall of criticism on Bozzini, calling his invention strange.
Later (in 1853) the device was improved by Anthony Jean Desormo (France). Instead of a candle, the surgeon decided to equip it with an alcohol lamp. The prototype of the modern endoscope was first used for the examination of patients, but it was still not perfect - the patient received a side effect in the form of a burn of the mucous membrane.
As science developed, the device was transformed - by the end of the twentieth century, the tube had gained flexibility and an electronic device for visualizing internal organs.
In the process of endoscopic examination, the doctor studies the cavities, lumens and mucous membranes of the organs, due to which the diagnosis of many diseases is greatly simplified.
The main advantage of the method is the possibility of detecting insidious ailments at the initial stage of their development, before the changes are seen in radiographic images. This increases the chances of a successful outcome of treatment.
Modern endoscopes are equipped not only with a camera to visualize the foci of pathology, but also with the equipment that collects the biomaterial (a piece of mucous membrane) for further research.In addition, you can attach to it other tools that allow you to perform more complex actions, for example, to remove a tumor, or to enter a drug.
To date, thousands of surgeries have been performed using an endoscope. The advantages of this technique: minimally invasive, short recovery period.
Currently, there are the following endoscopic research methods:
- Diagnostic.The main task is to examine the cavities of the internal organs in order to detect pathological processes and foreign bodies. At the same time, biological material may be collected for further analysis.
- Therapeutic.This implies the following actions: stopping bleeding, administering medications, removing tumors and removing foreign objects.
As a rule, endoscopic methods of investigation of a therapeutic nature are carried out using anesthesia.
Depending on the timing of endoscopy is:
- Emergency. It must be completed no later than 24 hours after the patient has applied to a medical facility.Often it is required for internal bleeding, exacerbation of diseases of the gastrointestinal organs, and a foreign object in the esophagus.
- Urgent.The procedure requires preliminary preparation, but at the same time it cannot be postponed for more than 72 hours after the patient’s admission. It is necessary in cases where the clinical picture of the disease remains unclear. Also, an urgent endoscopic examination is indicated for patients undergoing a planned course of treatment for previously diagnosed ailments.
- Planned. As a rule, is one of the stages of re-examination. Without negative health effects can be delayed for several days (up to 5 days).
- Combined.Implies the simultaneous or sequential implementation of several types of endoscopic examination.
The name of the procedure consists of the word indicating the organ to be visualized, and the end of the copy.
In modern medicine, there are many types of endoscopy, in the process of which the following organs and systems are studied:
- Gastrointestinal tract (esophagoscopy, gastroscopy, duodenoscopy, intestinoscopy, rectoromanoscopy, colonoscopy).
- The organs of the respiratory system (rhinoscopy, laryngoscopy, tracheoscopy, bronchoscopy).
- Musculoskeletal system (arthroscopy).
- Organs of the urinary and genital systems (urethroscopy, cystoscopy, colposcopy, hysteroscopy).
- Cardiac cameras (angioscopy, cardioscopy).
- Ventricles of the brain (ventriculoscopy).
Depending on the prescribed treatment, endoscopy is divided into 2 categories:
- Therapeutic, in the course of which drugs are injected or medical glue is applied.
- Surgical, involving the performance of actions that may cause bleeding. Conducted exclusively in stationary conditions due to the risk of complications.
The study is carried out using an endoscope, which is inserted into the human body through natural holes or cuts made with a scalpel.
Depending on the purpose of the device is:
The patient's age is also taken into account - an endoscope with a small diameter is created for children.
By design, the tool is rigid and flexible.
The first is a short tube made of metal. It is equipped with a light bulb for good visualization and an eyepiece for an enlarged image with maximum resolution. As a rule, rigid endoscopes are used in urology and gynecology. They can also be used to remove foreign objects from the esophagus and inspect the rectum.
The most widely used flexible endoscopes. Thanks to them, it is possible to carry out diagnostics and perform therapeutic manipulations in the most remote and hard-to-reach areas: the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory system, vessels, etc.
Indications and contraindications
Endoscopic examination is appointed in the presence of:
Absolute contraindications for endoscopic examination are:
- anatomical deformation of the esophagus, leading to the impossibility of diagnosis and other manipulations;
- loss of consciousness;
- myocardial infarction;
- general critically severe patient condition.
Depending on the type of study, some contraindications may not be taken into account. For example, if a patient has intestinal bleeding simultaneously with myocardial infarction, endoscopy will be performed. In each situation, doctors correlate the risks and make a decision.
Some types of survey require prior compliance with certain rules.
Preparation for endoscopic examination of the digestive system organs:
- 8 hours before the procedure it is forbidden to eat food. Allowed to drink clean water without gas in small quantities for 3 hours.
- 1-2 hours before the procedure can not be smoked.
If a patient takes blood thinning medications, it is necessary to reduce their dosage before endoscopic examination of the stomach. Cancellation of drugs is made only after consulting a doctor.
Endoscopic examination of the intestine additionally requires a cleansing enema and a special diet. Within its framework, one week before the procedure it is forbidden to eat fatty and fried foods, as well as food that enhances gas formation.
Preparation for colposcopy:
- The procedure is carried out after the completion of menstruation.
- For 2 days it is necessary to refuse sex.
- For 24 hours to exclude the use of intimate cosmetics, the introduction of candles and vaginal tablets. Prohibited douching.
As a rule, other types of endoscopy do not require special training.In some cases, doctors recommend a few days to take mild sedatives.
How is the
The methodology of the study is as follows: an endoscope is inserted through the holes into the human body. In various fields of medicine, various types of devices are used. Other and ways of its introduction. For example, during endoscopic examination of the stomach, the device enters through the oral cavity. Previously, anesthesia may be offered to the patient to reduce the severity of discomfort. During endoscopic examination of the nose, the tube is inserted through its passages, and for more extensive visualization, through the throat.
Modern devices are equipped with light transmission and image systems. After the endoscope gets inside, the picture is displayed in real time on the screen, the doctor has the opportunity to examine the required organ in an enlarged size and to identify pathological processes.
Today, the risks of side effects are minimized.
Nevertheless, there remains a small likelihood of the following complications:
- allergic reactions to anesthetics;
- damage to the walls of organs;
- infection with infectious diseases.
Before research it is necessary to notify the doctor about the existing diseases. Performing the procedure by a top-notch specialist in a medical facility minimizes any risks.
Endoscopy is the collective name of a group of studies aimed at studying the organs and systems of the human body from the inside. Also with the help of this method, it is possible to perform more complex manipulations: perform surgical operations, inject drugs, etc.