The Greco-Persian wars are described in detail by Herodotus in his "History". He traveled a lot, visited various countries. Persia was no exception.
At the head of the Persian kingdom was Darius I. Under the rule of the state there were Greek cities located in Asia Minor. Persians subdued them, and forced the population to pay huge taxes. The Greeks, who lived in Miletus, could no longer tolerate this oppression. Flashed in 500 BC. e. in this city the uprising swept through other cities. To help rebels from Eretria (a city located on the island of Evia) and Athens came 25 ships. So the wars of antiquity began, which became the most significant in the history of the two states.
The rebels, supported by the naval forces, won several victories. However, later the Greeks were defeated.
Darius, vowed to avenge the Athenians and the Eubians,decided to seize the whole of Greece. In policies, he sends ambassadors with the demand to obey his authority. Submission was expressed by many. However, Sparta and Athens remained adamant.
In 490 BC. e. to the Attic from the north came the fleet of the Persians, the army landed near the small village of Marathon. Immediately, the Athenian militia was directed towards the enemy. From all of Hellas, only the population of Plataia (a town in Boeotia) assisted the Athenians. Thus, the Greco-Persian wars began with the numerical advantage of the Persians.
However, Miltiad (the Athenian commander) is competentbuilt his troops. So, the Greeks managed to defeat the Persians. The victorious pursued the losers battle to the very sea. There the Hellenes attacked the ships. The enemy fleet began to quickly withdraw from the coast. The Greeks won a brilliant victory.
According to the legends, one young warrior, having receivedorder, ran to Athens, to inform the inhabitants of the glad tidings. Without stopping, without taking a sip of water, he ran a distance of 42 km 195 meters. Stopping at the square of the village of Marathon, he cried out the news of the victory and immediately fell without breath. Today there is a running competition for this distance, which is called a marathon.
This victory dispelled the myth of the invincibility of the Persians. The Athenians themselves were very proud of the outcome of the battle. But on this the Greco-Persian wars did not end.
At this time in Athens began to gain popularity andThemistocles. This energetic and talented politician attached great importance to the fleet. He believed that with his help the Greco-Persian wars would end with the victory of Greece. At the same time, a rich silver deposit was discovered in Attica. The proceeds from the development of Themistocles proposed to spend on a fleet device. Thus, 200 triremes were built.
Greco-Persian wars continued in 10 years. King Darius I was succeeded by the ruler Xerxes. His army marched to Hellas by land from the north. Along the sea coast, she was accompanied by a huge fleet. Many Greek politicians then united against the invaders. The command took over Sparta.
In 480 BC. e. The Battle of Thermopyl took place. The battle lasted two days. The Persians could not break through the siege of the Greeks. But there was a traitor. He led the enemy to the rear to the Greeks.
Leonid (the Spartan king) remained with the volunteers to fight, and ordered the rest to retreat. The Persians gained victory in this battle and moved to Athens.
The city of Athenians was abandoned. Old men, children, women moved to neighboring islands, and men went to the ships.
The battle took place in the Salamis Strait. Persian ships entered the strait at dawn. The Athenians immediately struck the enemy's advanced ships. The Persian vessels were heavy and slow. The Trees easily avoided them. The Greeks won. Ruler Xerxes was forced to retreat to Asia Minor.
After the battle took place at Mikal and Plataea. According to legend, the battles took place in one day, and in both the winners were the Greeks.
Military operations were conducted for a long time, until 449 BC. e. This year, peace was concluded, as a result of which all Greek cities located in Asia Minor were granted independence.
The Greeks came out victorious. Their troops were few, but well-trained. In addition, the main causes of the Greco-Persian wars were the desire of the Greek people to regain freedom and independence, which supported their morale.