Hanging birch: description of species
Hanging birch (Betula pendula) - a widespread breed. This tree forms a small-leaved forest in all climatic zones, with the exception of the tundra. It should be said that the birch, as a rule, is not a root plantation. The tree appears in areas of burnt forest, mainly coniferous.
Hanging Birch: Description
It differs strongly developed root system, shallow penetrating into the soil. Because of this, trees are often subject to windfall. The birch is hanging, the height of the trunk of which can reach 25-30 meters, has dense, heavy yellowish-white wood. Young trees have brown bark. From eight to ten years old she begins to turn white. Young trees are easily confused with some types of alder. However, in the adult state, birch can be well distinguished precisely by the white bark.
Under favorable conditions, the diameter of the tree can reach 80 cm. Young branches hang down. This gives the crown a distinctive look. Therefore, actually, this is the name of this species - hanging birch.The crown of the tree is branchy, but it can hardly be called thick. Another name, which has hung birch, is warty.
As a rule, hanging birch is found on well-drained, poor soils. Since the tree loves light, it is often supplanted by large and long-lived plantings. In many cases, birch can be found in forests as an admixture, in lighter areas. The tree is widely distributed throughout the European part of the Russian Federation (from steppe to tundra). Birch grows in the Caucasus, Altai and Western Siberia. In the east, the distribution zone ends at Baikal. Outside the Russian Federation, hanging birch occurs almost throughout Europe, except for the Iberian Peninsula. The tree grows in Central and Western Asia, North Africa. Of all the species, hanging birch has the largest distribution area. In the mountains, you can find a tree at the level of 2100-2500 m. Often two of its species - hanging birch and fluffy birch - form a variety of transitional forms (when they grow together).
Branches and leaves
Branch of birch sympodial. The leaves of the tree have a shape from rhombic to triangular-ovoid.In length, they reach 3.5-7 cm, in width - 2-5. At the apex, the leaves are pointed, have a wide-wedge or almost truncated base. Their surface is smooth, and the edges are double-toothed. At a young age, the leaves are sticky. Bare petioles have a size of from 0.8 to 3 cm; kidneys are sessile. The branches of the tree are covered with a huge amount of dense resinous gland-warts (because of this, the name given above - warty) appeared.
These elements have the correct form. Outwardly, they are ugly. Dicate flowers. They are collected in dangling inflorescences at the ends of branches. Flowering occurs before (according to some, during) leaf blooming.
Male elements are located on short legs in the axils of red-brown covering scales. At the end of an elongated shoot of last year, the flower forms 2-4 earrings, hanging from 5-6 cm. Male perianth simple, 1-2-leaf. There are 2-4 forked stamens. They resist the perianth leaves.
Female elements have 2 bracts (bract). When they grow together, they form three-blade covering scales. Flowers without perianth (unlike male).The elements are located on the shortened lateral shoots of 5 pcs. Female flowers form cylindrical, short green pineal thyrsa (earrings). Ginets (pistil) consists of 2 fused carpets. In the lower ovary 1 ovule is formed. The stigmas are long, filiform, exposed, often brightly colored.
Hanging Birch: Seasonal Dynamics
Fruiting begins at the tree in a free state at 10 years, in planting - at 20-25. Birch hanging fruit every year. Maturation occurs in late summer. From this time begins the dispersion. It lasts all autumn and winter. In a birch forest, up to 35 seeds per hectare can fall annually. The fruit is a small winged nut.
It should be noted that the tree is not considered long-lived. The maximum age is 120 years. The tree continues to grow up to 50-60 years, and in thickness to 80. During the first five to six years, a moderate increase in height is observed. Subsequently, the growth rate increases significantly. So, from about 10 years old it reaches 75-90 cm / year. It should be borne in mind that from about 20 years of age, the hanging birch begins to bear fruit. In the process, the tree throws a huge amount of seeds into the vacated territories,thereby occupying the entire free area by itself and not allowing other plantations to grow. However, as a result of competition from seedlings, only a few plants remain. They continue to develop in an area free from other species.
Artificial growth retardation
The development of large individuals can be somewhat limited. Cutting birch, despite the fact that it is completely excluded in domestic editions, is quite possible. Often growth retardation is practiced in the Scandinavian countries. The trees cut off part of the branches on the side and the top. As a result, crown thickens, and the size of the plant, respectively, becomes smaller. However, pruning can be done with trees that are in active growth. In other words, only young plants with a trunk up to 15-20 cm in diameter are suitable for this. If you cut the old tree, then there will be only the bare part, without leaves and branches. However, young birch trees have some problems. So, the thickening of the crown occurs only in the summer. And at this time she looks very impressive. In the winter, when there is no foliage on the tree, an unnatural arrangement of the branches can be observed. Of course, in the country it is not so important.But if pruning occurs where the house is located for permanent residence, then it is worth considering whether it is necessary to do so.
Hanging birch quite well machined. Wood is not resistant to rotting. The breed is best preserved immersed in water. Birch wood is used as a raw material for the manufacture of plywood, carved toys of small size, in the manufacture of skis. The rock is used to produce acetic acid, charcoal, turpentine, methyl alcohol. In the process of dry distillation of bark, tar is used in perfumery and medicine. The branches go to the sauna brooms.
Birch leaves and buds are used in classical and traditional medicine. These parts of the tree have diaphoretic, choleretic and diuretic effects. In addition, they have wound healing, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, blood-purifying and diaphoretic effects.
Birch buds for medical purposes are harvested in January-March before they begin to blossom. Drying is carried out in a well-ventilated area or in fresh air.The kidneys contain 3-5.3 (8)% of essential oil. Its main components are bicyclic sesquiterpenoids. Also in the kidneys are resinous substances.
The collection of young leaves is carried out in May and June. They are dried in the attic or in the shade. Saponins, flavonoids, ascorbic acid are found in the leaves. Just as in the kidneys, they contain resinous substances and essential oil. Phytoncides are released from the leaves. They are able to kill pathogens in three hours.
Leaves and buds are used in collections and in the form of infusions. Birch sap, collected in the spring, is very tasty and healthy.
In early spring, before the leaves appear, and at the end of it, trees are fed. To do this, prepare a special mixture: 10 liters of urea per 10 liters of water, one kilogram of mullein, 15 g of ammonium nitrate. For feeding 10-20 years old plants, 30 liters of solution are needed, 30-year-olds and older trees - 50 liters. Watering is carried out during planting and within three to four days after it. Loosening of the soil is carried out to a depth of 3 cm in the process of weeding. Mulching pristvolnyh circles produced peat, wood chips, peat compost layer of 8-12 centimeters. In the spring dry branches are cut.
Pest and disease protection
Young leaves and shoots damage pipe-beetles. Affected items should be collected and then burned. Pristvolnye circles are recommended to dig. Serious damage to the leaves is caused by the caterpillars of the crested and crested silkworm and the silkworm-nun. Pests eat them so that only the veins remain. Caterpillars are recommended to shake off, and the plants themselves should be treated with insecticides.
May beetles and their larvae eat the roots of birches. In this case, digging the soil and removing pests.
Birch trees are subject to various diseases. Tinder mushrooms destroy wood. They must be removed. To prevent rust, spray plants with fungicides, for example, copper oxychloride. Before the onset of winter, near-stem circles should be covered by especially valuable species.
Hanging birch "Junghi" is a small standard tree, slow-growing, picturesque. The plant has an umbrella-like weeping crown. Its height is up to 5 m, and its width is up to 3-4. The bark has a white color, smooth surface, on which black rare cracks are visible. Tree shoots are flexible. Young branches hang to the ground.This gives the crown the characteristic look of an umbrella.
Hanging birch "Junghi" has light green leaves. Their size is smaller than that of a species plant. The leaves have a pointed triangular shape. Along the edges they are serrate. Leaflets bloom in early spring. With the onset of autumn, they acquire a magnificent yellow color. At a young age of the tree, as in a species plant, the leaves are sticky and smooth. Flowers are presented in the form of yellowish inflorescences - earrings-melliferous.
The root system of the tree is superficial. It is capable of raising pavements, it is sensitive to planting along a pristvolnom circle and soil compaction, the presence of drainage.
Plant development is quite intense. This variety of birch is characterized by high winter hardiness, while it loves the sun. Landing is best done in the spring. The tree is resistant to the conditions of the city.
There are no preferences for the soil condition of the tree. It can be found on any soil from neutral to slightly acidic. The plant develops normally on alkaline soils, sensitive to salinization. Variety "Junghi" is used as a tapeworm in small gardens and onpersonal plots. The tree is also used in the design of the coastal line of reservoirs.
Unusual leaf color
Hanging birch "Purpurea" can grow up to 10 meters. The diameter of the trunk of an adult tree - 4 m. The plant has a conical narrow shape, thinned, with hanging shoots. Young leaves have a dark red color. Over time, they become dense purple. By autumn, the color becomes brown-red. The leaves have a rhombic shape. The flowers are plain at the tree, and the earrings are drooping. The fruits are winged nuts.
Hanging birch "Purpurea" quite unpretentious. The tree is undemanding to the soil. However, it is worth noting that it is preferable to still dry loamy and sandy loam soil. The tree does not tolerate the proximity of groundwater. Suspended birch Purpurea is frost resistant. But in harsh winters shoots can slightly freeze slightly.
The tree has an unusual color foliage and a conical openwork crown. The bark of a birch is dark gray-black. This tree looks very impressive against the background of other plants or facades of buildings. This variety of birch is planted both singly and as a part of tree-shrub complex compositions. The compact size of the plant allows planting on small areas.
The variety "Purpurea" has a beneficial effect on the human body. Phytoncides stimulate the activity of the respiratory system. The odorous components of young leaves eliminate the tension of the nervous system. In addition, these substances are very useful for children.
Tree with a "compact" crown
Hanging birch "Fastygiata" differs by a narrow crown. A tree grows up to twenty meters high. The width of the trunk - no more than five, as a rule. The branches of the plant are directed upwards and have a somewhat spiral growth. A distinctive feature of the crown of this grade of birch is compactness. In autumn, the leaves are long enough to keep on the tree. The structure of the trunk is similar to the wart birch. Fastigiata has a well-developed, fairly powerful root system. This variety is quite wind resistant. The grafted variety Fastygiata grows very quickly. A species tree can be used as a stock.
Hanging birch "Crisp" has a weeping crown. Its deeply dissected leaves have a light green color. The tree is very beautiful. The height of the birch reaches no more than 6-8 meters. Crohn's herpid. The barrel is light colored.Leaves have unequally deeply dissected edges. In young trees, they are bright, light green, resinous. By autumn, the leaves become a smooth yellow color. This birch grows quickly enough. Earrings on it are long, drooping. This variety is highly frost resistant.
The tree loves light very much. It tolerates drought well and is low in depletion of soil composition. In this case, the tree does not tolerate trampling and soil compaction. Planted this variety in well-lit areas, preferably in the spring. During the autumn planting there is a great tide. It is not recommended to plant the plant in areas with a large flow of people in order to avoid trampling and compaction of the soil. The variety is used, as a rule, for group and single plantings in the foreground area, as well as for the formation of trees and shrubs or mixed with perennial plantings compositions.
Hanging birch "Laciniata" has a crown of oval, weeping shape. The trunk of the tree is white. Serrated leaves, heavily rugged. The tree grows up to 10-12 meters. Crohn openwork, elegant. The surface of the bark is smooth.
The lower part of the trunk has a black-gray color, its surface is covered with cracks. Young trees have brown bark. On the leaves there are jagged sharp blades. In summer, their color is bright green. In autumn, the leaves turn yellow. Growth of this grade of a birch very fast. The tree has high frost resistance. In severe winters annual shoots may freeze through. The plant is very light-loving. The tree is not demanding on soil fertility. The best growth is observed on loamy or sandy fresh soil.
The tree does not tolerate the proximity of groundwater and soil compaction. Also, the plant is not resistant to smoke and gas pollution. Landing should be carried out only in well-lit areas. Planting seedlings with an open rhizome is best in early spring. In the autumn period, there is a great fallout. It should not be planted with this variety of areas where there is a high probability of soil compaction, that is, in places of frequent people. Not recommended landing near motorways. The variety is used for group and single plantings, the formation of trees and shrubs compositions together with those rocks that have dark and dense crowns.
Tree with a pyramidal crown
Birch hanging "Royal Frost" grows to 7 meters. The tree has a pyramidal crown shape. Young plants have brown bark. Over time, it becomes snow-white. The leaves have a purple color and a glossy surface. Excellent decorative effect gives their combination with a snow-white trunk. The variety is quite unpretentious. It is preferable to carry out landing on moderately moist lungs loam. Maximum decorative effect can be observed in bright, open spaces. The tree is not subject to deformation, tolerates frost and drought. It is recommended to plant this variety as a tapeworm or in small groups.
Ideal variety for small gardens
Hanging birch "Gracilis" has a graceful elegant shape. Of all the weeping forms, this variety is considered the most delicate, airy and light. The crown of an adult tree is six meters in diameter. Foliage retains its green color for a long time. The crown consists of thin twigs. In height, the birch grows to 10 m. The tree grows slowly. By age 20, the plant reaches only five meters. Birch "Gracilis" thick branches and trunk white.It is resistant to drought and frost, and tolerates a slight shade. The tree is not demanding to moisture and soil fertility, it feels quite well in urban conditions. It is recommended to plant this variety in well-lit areas with light soil. It is used both in single and mixed plantings with perennial plantings. For smaller gardens this is the perfect variety.