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- Date: December 31, 2017
Change History of Santa Claus
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He changed the color of fur coats, character and names.
He froze to death and gave generously.
Until he became the usual Santa Claus - the executor of secret desires.
Great and terrible
A couple of centuries ago, Santa Claus did not please the children, but frightened them.
The character, called Grandfather, was the most terrible of the spirits, which depicted mummers during the traditional festive caroling. Nobody expected gifts from him then - on the contrary, as they could, they enticed them with gifts so that they would not harm.
Also, researchers of folklore are tipped into the ancestors of our Father Wintercycle - a Slavic deity in charge of frost and cold. Togo, too, is hard to call a good-natured one: like knocking a staff, it will ice the rivers, freeze the wells, snow the roads, blister, and sweep. The agitated was an old man - remember “Frost”, - the displeased could easily freeze to death.
Good will not kill
A more similar character to our familiar Grandfather appears in 1840.
In the collection “The tales of grandfather Irenaeus”, the same Moroz in the treatment of Vladimir Odoyevsky (“Moroz Ivanovich”) becomes kinder, “heats the grass until spring”, and Lenivice (the analogue of her stepmother) just gives an icicle instead of silver, and does not kill with cold. True, unlike the usual to us, he lives in a well, does not go to the children and does not bring gifts, but he can generously reward for a job well done.
In the 80s of the XIX century, Christmas (or Svyatochny) grandfather began to closely associate with Christmas in the cities of Christmas. He was already bringing gifts to children for good behavior. But the character has gained real popularity since 1910, when they began to issue Christmas cards with his image.
1927 was the shock year of the struggle against the Christmas trees and Santa Claus: “The children are deceiving that Santa Claus has brought them gifts. Religiosity of children begins with the Christmas tree ”.
While there was a slow selection of the grandfather of a permanent name (there was even a variant of Moroz Yolkich), a revolution occurred. Christmas, Christmas tree, angels, Grandfather were recognized as "the old-fashioned deception of the masses."
“Only he who is a friend of priests, is ready to celebrate the Christmas tree,” said the campaign slogan of 1920.
1927 was the shock year of the struggle against the Christmas trees and Santa Claus: “The children are deceiving that Santa Claus has brought them gifts. Religiosity of children begins with the Christmas tree. The dominant exploiting classes use the "cute" herringbone and the "kind" Santa Claus also to make obedient and patient servants of capital out of the working people. "
Then it was finally forbidden to celebrate Christmas and arrange Christmas trees. But in 1935, the wind suddenly blew in the opposite direction. On December 28, Pravda published an article by Pavel Postyshev, secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, saying that “the children of the workers looked at the window with envy at the Christmas tree glittering with colored lights and the rich children having fun around it ... Some, none other than“ leftists ” the zagibshchiki denounced this children's entertainment as a bourgeois venture ... It follows this wrong condemnation of the Christmas tree ... an end ... we will build a good Soviet Christmas tree in all cities and collective farms. "
It is said? Made by They began to release Christmas-tree toys again (without angels, of course), they returned the tree.Only the top was now decorated not with the eight-pointed white star of Bethlehem, but with the five-pointed red.
In 1937, the first appearance of Santa Claus took place - on the Kremlin tree in the Hall of Columns of the House of Unions. In the hall gathered the best students of Moscow and the surrounding area. The responsible role was then entrusted to the famous entertainer Mikhail Garkavi. The grandfather turned out to be a dense build, but very mobile and after the word, according to the main profession, I did not climb into my pocket. In the Snow Maidens he had an excellent schoolgirl.
About December 31, 1937 there are memories that were present in the hall of Eugene Rudneva. “... And now to Grandfather Frost - entertainer - the Snow Maiden runs up and babbles:“ Grandfather, until the New Year, one minute left! ”Then the lights were extinguished in the hall, only the Christmas tree burned and sparkled. The searchlights began to move, and everything began to flare up and float. Then they turned on the Red Square. And as soon as the clock struck, the ceiling appeared: “Happy New Year!” Inside was a star, which immediately began to spin. Airplanes sailed across the ceiling, and when the Internationale sang, “Thank you, beloved Stalin!” Appeared .. The light was lit in a new one, in 1938. ... Grandfather Frost appeared again and quipped: "Now you will see the number, which I am sure of, you see for the first time this year."It was then that with a wave of the magic wand Santa Claus lit a Christmas tree 15 meters tall, hence: “Fir-tree, light up!”
Santa Claus has returned, but he has not yet become necessary. His reputation was forged involved in the main Christmas tree of the country. Children's writer Sergei Preobrazhensky created the holiday script and became the next frost after Garkavi. He believed: "Santa Claus is the main steward, the first entertainer and the head of all the fun." In the 1950s, aces, Lev Kassil and Sergei Mikhalkov, joined the creation of the script.
Since 1961, the tree was held in the new Kremlin Palace of Congresses, it became an important state event, and the selection of participants, respectively, was strict. Actor Alexander Khvylya, who by that time played the main role in the film “Morozko”, fit the role of the “fun leader” as well as possible and played it for many years. Replaced Khvylya Roman Filippov - Nicola Pitersky from “Gentlemen of Fortune” and a visitor to the restaurant in the “Diamond Hand”, who diligently invited Nikulin and Mironov to Kolyma. Took the article and voice.
In the 90s, when the residence of Santa Claus opened in Veliky Ustyug, Dmitry Nazarov took over the post.Unlike his predecessors, his incognito was revealed, and the actor had to fight back from journalists and explain that Santa Claus actually exists, and he is only an assistant. The same line is followed by the grandfathers living now in Ustyug, who are rumored to work on a rotational basis.
Santa Claus and his entourage
The Snow Maiden as a character first appears in a folk tale processed and published by Alexander Afanasyev in 1869. There, the girl, adopted by an old man and an old woman, melts away with the departure of winter. Four years later, Alexander Ostrovsky based on a fairy tale wrote the play of the same name. In it, the Snow Maiden already appears as a beautiful girl, the daughter of Santa Claus and Spring Red.
This image later became a reference: a light braid, a blue fur coat with a white edge, white boots and mittens. The truly popular heroine of the Spring Tale became after the release of the Snow Maiden opera Rimsky-Korsakov. No wonder, the composer was in love with his heroes: “There wasn’t a better story for me, there wasn’t a better poetic image for me than the Snow Maiden, Lel or Spring ...”
Initially, before the revolution, the Snow Maiden was a separate character and sometimes appeared alone during the holidays. The beginning of a permanent alliance with Santa Claus was laid by that same Christmas tree in the Hall of Columns.Later, according to the scenario, the Snow Maiden turned Moroz Ivanovich’s daughter into a granddaughter.
From time to time, other characters of the New Year's fairy tale also join Santa Claus. So, after Gagarin’s flight into space, an astronaut briefly appeared on the scene. Thanks to the children's writer and multiplier Vladimir Suteev, the company was joined by a snowman, who can, if necessary, bring a herringbone from the forest and drive a car carrying gifts.
Be afraid of a fake!
If there are doubts about the authenticity of Santa Claus - if Santa Claus or some student pretended to be them - there are sure ways to check.
His fur coat should be long, red and belted with a sash. White beard - at least to the waist. The nose is red because it is cold. The voice is solid, so that the regiment could command. Grandpa walks on foot, in extreme cases he rides a sleigh on a troika, which symbolizes three winter months, but not on reindeer and, of course, not by car. Always takes with a magic staff. He does not use a chimney to enter a house, does not wear glasses, and does not smoke a pipe.