Kremlin towers: names and their height
The Moscow Kremlin is an invaluable architectural ensemble belonging to the XV-XIX centuries. In its shape, it resembles a triangle of irregular shape. The south side of the ensemble faces the Moscow River. The fortress is surrounded by a brick wall, which has 20 towers of different architecture. Today we will briefly introduce you to the features of each of them.
The construction of this design refers to 1487 - 1488 years. Its author was an architect from Italy, Mark Fryazin. The tower in the plan is round. Her name came from the court of the boyar Beklemishev, who adjoined her. Its height is 46.7 m. However, it is not the tallest structure.
Appeared in the Kremlin in 1490. It was built by Italian architect Pietro Solari. Its name originates from the church of St. Helena and Constantine, located nearby. The height of the structure is slightly less than 37 m.
The towers of the Kremlin were built at different times. For example, Nabatnaya appeared in a fortress in 1495. It was named after the bells of the Spassky Nabat, which were part of the Kremlin’s fire-fighting system. It stands at 38 meters.
The towers of the Moscow Kremlin differ not only in architectural style, but also in size. For example, the Royal Tower has a rather modest size. It was installed directly on the wall. This happened in the 1680s. She is younger than her "sisters" by almost two centuries. Previously, in its place was a small tower, made of wood. According to legend, from it, Ivan the Terrible himself was watching the Red Square - the Russian Tsar. Hence its name. Height - 16.7 m.
Spasskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin
This is one of the most famous buildings of the Kremlin. First of all, because it refers to the towers overlooking the Red Square.
The Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin has the same name gate, in its tent installed the famous clock - Moscow chimes.
This is a grand structure with a height of more than 71 m. The Spasskaya Tower of the Moscow Kremlin appeared in the Kremlin during the reign of Ivan III (1491). The author of the project was the architect Pietro Solari.
Initially, a much smaller tower was erected than we see today. This is explained by the fact that in 1625 Christopher Galloway - an architect from England - in collaboration with the Russian architect Bazhen Ogurtsov built a large multi-tiered top above the tower.It was made in the Gothic style with some elements of Mannerism. The tower ends with a stone tent. Fairy-tale figures - the original element of design. They were covered with clothes tailored specifically for this purpose.
At the end of the XVII century, the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin was decorated with the first two-headed eagle - the emblem of the Russian state. Much later, the symbols of the state appeared on the Trinity, Nikolskaya, Borovitskaya towers.
At all times, the gates of the tower were the central of all the Kremlin. Moreover, they were worshiped as saints. It was forbidden to ride through them, and men passing through them were required to take off their hats. The one who did not observe the holy rules, was obliged to make 50 bows to the ground.
Spassky Gate became the main entrance to the territory of the Kremlin. Through them the troops went to battle. Foreign ambassadors were also greeted here.
All the Kremlin processions went through this gate. Starting with Mikhail Fedorovich, all Russian tsars and emperors must pass through them before the coronation.
There is a legend that when “invincible” Napoleon drove through the famous gate in the ravaged Moscow, then a gust of wind blew off his famous cocked hat.
During the retreat, the French decided to burn the Spasskaya Tower, but the Don Cossacks came to the rescue and were able to put out the already lit wicks.
On both sides of the gate were chapels. Smolenskaya is on the left, Spasskaya is on the right. They were built of stone in 1802. In 1812 both of them were destroyed and rebuilt according to a completely new project. At the end of October 1868, two new tent chapels were solemnly consecrated. In 1925 both were torn down.
Another attraction, which is famous for the Spasskaya Tower - chimes that adorn the tower from the XVI century. True, it should be noted that they are constantly changing. Completely new watches were made in 1625 by the English mechanic and watchmaker Christopher Galovei. They played musical melodies, measured day and night time, which was indicated by numbers and letters. At that time, the shooter on the dial did not exist.
Tsar Peter I (1705) issued a decree on the reconstruction of the Spassky watch. They were converted to the German way. The dial appeared, which was divided into 12 sectors.
In 1770, they were replaced by English watches, which were found in the Faceted Chamber.At first, they performed the plain song "Darling Augustine", referring to German folklore.
The chimes, which are known to us, were made by the brothers Budenop (1851-1852 g). They were installed on the eighth and tenth tiers of the tower. The chimes were announced by the “March of the Preobrazhensky Regiment” at 6 and 12 o'clock. At 3 and 9 o'clock they sang the anthem “Kohl is glorious is our Lord” by D. Bortnyansky. These tunes sounded over Red Square until 1917. At first, the idea arose of picking up the national anthem of Russia on the playing shaft of the chiming clock, but Nicholas I did not allow it.
In early November 1917, the clock suffered during the assault of the Bolsheviks. They hit a shell, which interrupted one of the arrows and violated the mechanism of rotation. The clock froze for almost a year. In September 1918, V.I. Lenin issued a decree according to which the watch was restored by master Nikolai Behrens.
The chimes began to "sing" the "Internationale" at 12 o'clock, and "You fell as a victim ..." at 24 o'clock. In 1938, the chimes were silent for a long time. They only marked hours and quarters in battle.
After 58 years (in 1996), during the solemn inauguration of the First Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin, the Russians heard the “Patriotic Song” performed by the chimes, and every quarter of an hour the melody of the choir “Hail”.
The last restoration of the chimes took place in 1999. Numbers and arrows gilded.The appearance of the upper tiers of the tower was completely restored. At the end of the year, the chimes were finally tuned. Now they play the national anthem of Russia, which was officially approved in 2000.
The chimes have quite impressive dimensions - diameter 6.12 m. They “look” on four sides. The Roman numerals are 0.72 m high, the hour hand is 2.97 m long, the minute one is 3.27 m. Previously, the watch was wound up manually, but after 1937 three electric motors are used for this.
The towers of the Moscow Kremlin are not all equally popular and famous. For example, the Senate - it was erected in 1491 by Pietro Solari. It was named much later (1787), when the Senate Palace was built on the territory of the Kremlin. Its height is 34.3 meters.
This design is also the work of Pietro Solari. The tower was built at the same time as its Senate "sister" (in 1491). It was named after the icon of St.. N. Wonderworker, which was above the gate. Crowned with a tower red star. The huge building stands at 70.4 m.
Arsenal Tower (corner)
The towers of the Kremlin, located at the corners of the fortress, are more massive. Arsenal built by Pietro Solari (1492). This is one of the most powerful towers.The name appeared at the beginning of the XVIII century, when the Arsenal building was built on the territory of the Kremlin. The round-shaped tower inside has a well. The height of the structure is 60.2 meters.
Arsenal Tower (Medium)
The second tower, named after Arsenal, was built in 1495. Its height is 38.9 m.
This tower was considered to be the second after Spasskaya. Built by the Italian Aloizio da Milano in 1495. It was renamed several times, but eventually the name Troitskaya (by the name of the monastery in the Kremlin) got accustomed. Today it is the main entrance for everyone to visit the Kremlin. Crowned construction red star. It should be noted that the size of the towers of the Kremlin. The height of the tower exceeds 80 meters. There are facilities that are lower than it more than twice.
Kutafya Kremlin Tower
It was built in 1516. The author of the project is an architect from Italy, Aleviz Fryazin. It is a low tower surrounded by a deep moat and the Neglinnaya River. She had the only gate that at the slightest danger closed tightly drawbridge. She was a serious obstacle to the enemies.
In the 17th century, the water level in Neglinnaya was raised high with the help of dams.She began to surround the tower from all sides. At the beginning, its height above the ground level was 18 meters.
Why does the Kutafya Kremlin Tower have such a name? There are two versions. One of them is from the word “kut” (corner, cover) or from the word “Kutafya”, which means a cumbersome, full woman.
Kutafya tower never had a top cover. In 1685, she received an openwork "crown" with spectacular white-stone details.
Its height is 13.5 meters.
This tower received its name in the 19th century, when the official palace of the commandant of Moscow began to be located in the Poteshny palace located next door. A tower was built much earlier, in 1495. Its height is 41.25 m.
I must say that at the end of the 15th century many towers of the Kremlin appeared. That Armory was built in the Kremlin in 1495. They called it much later (1851), when the Armory was built nearby. The height of the building is 38.9 m.
As a rule, the Kremlin towers received the name from the location or in honor of a structure located nearby. Borovitskaya tower appeared on the map of the Kremlin in 1490. It was created by Pietro Solari. They named it in honor of Borovitsky Hill.It was on its slope that the tower was built. Today it is the main passage for the tuples of the government and the president. Crowned tower of a red ruby star. Its height is 54 meters.
This building was erected by Italian architect Antonio Gilardi in 1488. The tower was round, there was a well inside it, and a secret passage was dug in it that led to the Moscow River. It received its name from the water-pumping machine installed in it in 1633, which supplied water to the gardens of the Kremlin. Crowned with a beautiful ruby star structure. The height of the tower is 61.25 m.
In our article we published a photo of the Kremlin. Its towers are all very different in style, shape, size. At the same time, they surprisingly create a very harmonious ensemble. Look at the Annunciation Tower. It was built at the end of the 15th century (1488), but it still amazes the guests of the Kremlin with its magnificence. She received her name in honor of the icon of the Annunciation, located in the tower. Its height is 32.45 m.
The building was built in 1485. This is not the tallest tower - Taynitskaya. Previously, it was a travel card, but later the gate was laid.She was named after a secret well in it and a secret passage that led to the Moscow River. The Taynitskaya Tower rises 38.4 meters above the Kremlin.
Two not very tall towers. Both were built in the 80s of the XV century. Their height is 34.15 and 30.2 meters respectively.
In honor of the nearby church of Metropolitan Peter and the monastery of the Ugreshsky monastery, another construction was named. Peter's Tower has a height of 27.15 meters.
Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin
This is another attraction, dear to the heart of every Russian. Thousands of tourists from different parts of the Earth come every year to see the Nizhny Novgorod miracle.
The length of the Kremlin - about 2 kilometers, height - from 18 to 30 meters. When the towers of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin were built, there were 13. Only 12 survived to our day. At the beginning of 2010, the restoration and reconstruction of the lost Zachatievskaya Tower began.
Each of the 12 designs has its own history, which, as a rule, is reflected in their names - Borisoglebskaya, Georgievskaya, Belaya, Zachatievskaya, Ivanovskaya, Severnaya, Chasovaya, Taynitskaya, Koromyslova, Kladovaya, Dmitriyevskaya, Gunpowder, Nikolskaya.
Exit to the open wall of the Kremlin for walking is located in the Pantry Tower. Over its long history, the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin has gone through a lot of rebuilding and reconstruction. It is the most valuable monument of history, architecture and culture of Russia. The towers of the Kremlin are of interest to researchers and scientists from around the world.