Krishna is ... The story of Krishna
Who is Krsna? What is he famous for? You will find answers to these and other questions in the article. This is the eighth avatar of Vishnu, one of the forms of the Lord in Hinduism. She is often depicted as one of the most popular Hindu gods. In the monotheistic customs of Hinduism, it is revered as the original and supreme form of the Most High.
In accordance with the sacred Hindu texts, at the end of the 4th millennium BC. er God Krishna descended to earth from the spiritual universe, being born in the city of Mathura. His mission was to revive religious views and demonstrate his moral games. The acts, life, and teachings of Krishna are described in such holy writings of Hinduism as the puranas (“Vishnu” and “Bhagavata”), “Mahabharata”, and “Harivamasha”.
In these writings, Krishna is represented in a variety of ways: a playful and charming God-child, a carefree and cheerful boy, herding cows, an exemplary lover, the main god and a wondrous hero-warrior.
Krishna is a beautiful creature. In Hindu art, he is described as a shepherd boy who plays the flute for his beloved shepherd Radha and other gopis.Also, the god Krishna is represented here as a young warrior-prince, who gives philosophical instructions to his friend, the hero Arjuna, in Bhagavadgita.
Krishna is a cult. The most ancient evidence of its presence are confined to the V-IV centuries BC. er By the 9th century, Krishnaism became popular in South India. By the 12th century, the diverse values of this religion were formed in northern India, and regional cults of such types of Krishna as Shrinathji (in Rajahstan), Vithoba (in Maharashtra) and Jagannath (in Orissa) appeared.
In the 1960s, Krishnaism also made its way to Russia and the West, mainly due to the preaching of Bhagtivedanty Swami Prabhupada and the religious organization “Interethnic Society for Krishna Consciousness”, which accredited the values of Gaudiya-Vaishnavism.
Etymology and names
Many people know that Krishna is an amazing deity. The word "Krishna" in Sanskrit means "dark blue", "black" or "dark." In accordance with the outdated hypothesis, the darkness of Krishna testifies to the non-Aryan, autochthonous origin of the image of the deity.
This God in the murti is most often sealed with black (rarely blue or white).The painting is mainly depicted with skin of dark blue or blue. His skin color in the "Brahma-samhita" is interpreted as "one who has a shade of azure clouds." Identification of clouds and deities in color is common to the poetry of India.
This God in Hinduism takes the first place. He is also known by other titles and names that reveal his various attributes and qualities. Gopala and Govinda are among the most famous names that define the image of Krishna as a cow shepherd. The individual names of this deity have a special meaning in certain areas of India. Thus, the name Jagannath is especially popular in Orissa.
Interpretation of names
Everyone knows what translation is. Krishna has dark skin, and that is a fact. Different customs in Hinduism in various ways explain the meaning of the names of this God. For example, the interpreters of "Vishnu-sahasranama" explain in detail each of the thousands of names of Vishnu, which are also the names of Krsna. In Udyogaparva, the Mahabharata 5. 71. 4 the name “Krishna” is divided into two segments - “Krish” (krs) and “na” (na), where the meaning of the verb root “Krish” is interpreted as “bhu” (“earth”, “Creation”), and “on” is interpreted as “nirvriti” (“bliss”).
In the Gaudiya-Vaishnava heritage, the founder of the above Krishna society, Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, gave the identical basic meaning of the name of the deity we are considering as “all-pervading”. The above text from the Mahabharata is also quoted in one of the basic holy writings of the Gaudiya Vaisnavas, Caitanya-caritamrite.
In his interpretation, Bhaktivedanta explained the meaning of "bhu" as an "attractive being." Hence the meaning of "all-pervading." Interpreters of "Vishnu-sahasranama" also give an identical explanation. For example, according to Shankar, Krishna is the 57th name of Vishnu, which means "the nature of bliss and knowledge." The Brahmasambandha Mantra of the Pushtimarg legacy says that the name of Krishna can eliminate all sins.
God in Hinduism is represented by an unusual creature. Krishna is usually portrayed as a black or black guy. This is especially true for the murti of Krishna in the Hindu prayers. In the works of art, Krishna is often painted as a boy or a young man in Vrndavana with skin of dark blue or azure color. He wears a yellow dhoti and plays the flute while standing. Krishna is relaxed, his legs are crossed.On his neck hangs a garland made of flowers, and in his hair is a peacock feather. Krishna is almost always depicted surrounded by calves, cows and gopi cowherd girls.
Also very often, Krishna is depicted at the moment when he gives advice to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kuruksetra in Bhagavadgita. In these cases, he looks like a guy with typical beautiful features characteristic of the religious art of India. Also this God can be seen with the chakra - one of the characteristics of Vishnu. Or with a large number of hands and heads showing Arjuna his worldwide form.
Have you ever seen the temple of Krishna? In all such temples there are murti in which Krishna is represented standing in an idle posture next to his fellow travelers — his sister Subhadra, brother of Balarama (also known as Balayhadra) or with her beloved wives, the sovereign Satyabhama and Rukmini. Sometimes he is portrayed with his beloved gopi, Radha. In this case, it looks like Radha-Krishna - a face typical of many traditions in Hinduism. For example, Manipur Vaishnavas never worship Krishna alone, but always Radha Krishna alone.
The story of Krishna fascinates everyone who is familiar with it.The ancient Indian epic “Mahabharata” is the most ancient composition, telling about the life path of Krishna. The Bhagavadgita consists of 18 chapters from the sixth work (Bhishma-parva) of the Mahabharata. It describes the edification of Krishna to his disciple and friend Arjuna on the battlefield of Kuruksetra. In the Mahabharata, the late life period of Krishna is mainly described. A detailed account of the childhood and adolescence of God is contained in the Bhagavata Purana and Harivamsha, which, from the point of view of scholars, is a later amendment to the Mahabharata. The story of Krishna’s life or some of its elements can be found in each of the canonical Puranas.
In Bhagavata Purana, the reason for Krsna’s coming is explained. Her texts mention the father of heaven, Brahma. He told the demigods that they would have to transform, being born to the light of their grandchildren and sons of Yadav, and live on the Earth while the Most High dwelt on it, in order to reduce its oppression through eternal time, its energy. An identical description is presented in the Mahabharata, with a minor inconsistency in the details.
According to tradition in Hinduism, based on the details noted in astrological calculations and descriptions, the date of birth of Krishna (Krishna Janmashtami) is assumed to be July 19, 3228 BC. er
Krishna was born in Mathura in the royal family. He was the eighth son of Vasudeva and his wife Princess Devaki. In those years, Mahutra was the capital of the friendly clans of Vrishni, Bhoja and Andhaka, which were named after the Yadavas. They were so named after their eponymous progenitor Yadu.
Devaki and Vasudeva were part of these clans. King Kamsa, the brother of Devaki, in order to seize the throne, threw his father, King Ugrasena, into prison. Kamsa feared for his life because of the prediction, which said that the eighth son of Devaki would destroy him. He therefore imprisoned and married a couple, intending to destroy all the babies of Devaki.
King Kamsa killed the first six babies of Devaki. After the seventh mythical miscarriage, Devaki was born to the eighth baby, Krishna. Since the life of the offspring was in danger, it was marvelously taken outside the boundaries of Mahutra. Little Krishna was taken to the small village of Gokula and given to foster parents Nanda and Yashoda for upbringing.
Two more babies of Devaki, Balarama and Subhadra, survived. Balarama is the seventh child of Devaki, who magically moved from the womb of Devaki into the womb of Rohini, the first wife of Vasudeva. And Subhadra is the daughter of Rohini and Vasudeva, who was born after Krishna and Balarama.
The birthplace of Krishna in Mahutra is a pilgrimage site for the Hindus and is called Krishna-janma-bhumi. There is a temple complex, erected in honor of this precedent.
It is known that Nanda was the leader of a community of cow shepherds who lived in the Vrindavan area. In the stories of the boyhood of Krishna, he is told that he was under the protection of these shepherds. When Kamsa discovered that the newborn had escaped, he began sending various demons (like Aghasura) on a mission to destroy Krishna.
Krishna and his brother Balarama managed to destroy all the demons. Many of the most famous stories of Krishna tell precisely about this period of his life. They mainly describe the uplifting of Govardhana Mountain and the pranks of Krishna with Radha and other rural gopi cowgirls. The chronicles of Krishna’s amusement with the gopis, known as rasa-lila, were subsequently described by Jayadeva in his poem Gita-Govinda.
When Krishna grew up, he returned to Mathura, killed his demonic uncle Kamsa, and restored Ugrasena (the father of Kamsa) to the throne of the Yadu dynasty. Krishna himself became the first prince in the court.At the same time, he became friends with Arjuna and other princes of the Pandavas of the Kuru Empire, who were his cousin brothers. After a certain period of time, Krishna went to live with his subjects and the Yadu dynasty in the city of Dvaraka (now Gujarat). There he married Rukmini, the daughter of King Bhishmaki of Vidarbha.
Some scriptures say that Krishna had a total of 16,108 wives, eight of whom were major. These included Rukmini, Jambavati and Satyabhama. The other 16,100 girls were previously held captive by the satanic king Narakasura. Krishna killed him and freed them all.
In accordance with the strict orders of those years, girls who had been in captivity were considered fallen. That is why they had no chance to get married. Despite this, Krishna married them and turned them into princesses. In the Vaishnava heritage of Hinduism, all the consorts of Krishna in Dvaraka are considered the incarnation of Lakshmi.
Battle of Kuruksetra
It is known that Krishna is Vishnu. But Vishna is not Krishna. Although it is all God, the dominant person. Krishna is the cousin of one of the warring parties, the Pandavas (he is also the nephew of Vasudeva’s sister, their mother, Kunti).In addition, Krishna was a cousin of the most valiant and powerful kshatriya who fought on the side of the Kauravas, Karna. Krishna offered to the leaders to choose either himself or his army, but with the condition that he would not take the weapon in his hands.
The Kauravas chose the army of Krishna for themselves, and Krishna himself took the side of the Pandavas. Also in the upcoming great battle, Krishna agreed to become the chariot driver for his friend Prince Arjuna.
Bhagavadgita is a philosophical conversation between Arjuna and Krishna before the start of the Kuruksetra battle. In it, Krishna instructs Arjun, who did not dare to raise weapons against relatives (including teachers who fought on the side of the Kauravas, and his grandfather Bhishma). Krishna was condemned by his elder brother for the invasion of the feud, and he, in order not to support anyone, became a pilgrim for the duration of the battle.
Krishna plays a pivotal role in the final battle of Kuruksetra, prompting the Pandavas to deal with the superstrong Kauravas warriors using dishonorable methods. The Pandavas followed the advice of Krsna. As a result, they deceived themselves from their almighty teacher in the military affairs of the brahman warrior Drona.At the insistence of Krishna, Arjuna killed the overwhelming Karna when the chariot got stuck in the ground and the battle was to be suspended. Also, according to Krishna's instruction, the most powerful of the Pandavas, Bhima, killed the leader of the Kauravas, Duryodhan, in a duel in clubs with a forbidden low blow.
Late segment of being
Have you ever studied Vishnu Purana? This religious Hindu text is very interesting. But we continue further. After the Battle of Kuruksetra, Krishna lived in Dvaraka for 36 years. Then, at one celebration between the Poisons, a mortal battle ensued, in which they killed each other. After a while, Krishna’s older brother, Balarama, left his body in yogic unconsciousness. Krishna went to the forest, sat down under a green tree on the ground and began to meditate.
A hunter passed by him with the prowl of Jar (decrepitude). He saw part of Krishna’s leg through the foliage, suggested that there was a deer behind the tree, and shot him with a bow. Krishna was mortally wounded.
According to the Mahabharata, Krishna died due to the condemnation of the mother of the Kauravas, Gandharati. After the death of her sons on the battlefield, she became angry and cursed Krishna for not trying to stop the war.He merely grinned and took the curse, saying that his duty was to fight on the godly side, and not to warn the battle.
In accordance with the descriptions of the Bhagavadgita and the Bhagavata Purana and the astrological calculations based on them, Hinduism considers the date of Krishna’s death on February 18, 3102 BC. er This date is based on the Mahabharata. Her texts indicate that Krishna reigned in Dvaraka for 36 years after the Battle of Kuruksetra. The Matsya Purana also states that at the time of the battle on Kuruksetra Krishna was 89 years old, after which the Pandavas ruled for 36 years.
Why do they say that Krishna is Vishnu? Because Krishna as svayam-rupa is the root cause of Vishnu, or Narayana (Vilasa-rupa), who in his turn pours out of the Vaibhava-Prakashi of Krishna, the configuration of the God of Balarama. Krishna also has additional properties.
The cult of Krishna-Vasudeva, called bhagavativism, has historically been one of the most ancient forms of worshiping Krishna. Scientists believe that over time, Bhagavatism mingled with other values of worshiping Krishna, such as the cult of Bala Krishna and Gopala, which formed the basis for the current monotheistic Krishnaism.
Scientists think that Krishna himself, who was also called Vasudeva, was the creator of the religious values of bhagavatism. He belonged to the Yadava tribe and his disciples called themselves Bhagavatas. The most ancient archaeological and literary evidence of the presence of this heritage dates back to the V-II centuries BC. er
In today's Hinduism, worshiping Krishna is a segment of the monotheistic heritage of Vaishnavism. His followers worship the Cherry as the Supreme God. Krishna in Vaishnavism is interpreted as the most perfect avatar, or a form of Vishnu, identical to Vishnu.
Krishna is also one of the basic forms of God in the worship of the bhakti heritage of Hinduism, especially in Vaishnavism.
The flow of bhakti, based on the worship of Krishna, was popularized in India from the sixth to the ninth century by the authors of ancient texts devoted to Krishna-bhakti.
In those years, scholars who had knowledge of Sanskrit could admire such writings as "Gitagovind" and "Krishnakarnamrita." People sang religious songs and other poets compiled in the local languages of India. These songs expressed devotion and aesthetic love to Krishna.They were created by poets who came from different sections of Indian society at the time.
In 1966, the worship of Krishna went beyond India and expanded throughout the world, including Europe, Africa, Canada, the USA, Latin America and Russia. This was due to the Interethnic Society of Krishna Consciousness and its creator Bhaktivedante, who introduced the worldview of Gaudiya Vaisnavism in the English language.