Madness is ... Definition, causes, signs, symptoms and treatment
Madness is often attributed to creative people, geniuses, as well as magicians and psychics. In this case, it becomes a romantic color and borders on the genius of man. But insanity is attributed to the heavy ones. The Madman is isolated from society because he is capable of harming others. In order to understand the meaning of this term, you should carefully study this article.
What is madness?
The old name for this term is madness. Today, madness is a mental illness. And in the distant past, people who thought differently than others did were considered insane. They could go beyond the bounds of decency and did not follow the generally accepted rules. Then, people who committed suicide or had convulsions were considered insane. Today, this name is used to refer to the mental state of a person when he loses the ability of sanity and becomes crazy.
Madness may differ in the form of manifestation:
- Useful madness - a state in which a person is not dangerous to others. Maybe: mystical, poetic or erotic. Creative nature or magicians often become crazy. This includes the state of ecstasy or delight.
- Recklessness, which is divided into madness, insanity and insanity. According to I. Kant, the first is manifested in the absence of logic, and the second - in recklessness.
- Melancholy. Previously, this condition was attributed to creative individuals. In those days, special attention was paid to the appearance of a person. If he had subtle facial features and pallor, then he was considered a melancholic madman.
- Hysteria and mania - the opposite of the previous state, manifested in increased activity and inability to control their own emotions. A person with this form of the disease achieves the goal by any means.
Previously, under the madness meant a bunch of diseases. These included various conditions: hallucinations, coma, lethargy, epilepsy, and more, which distinguished man from others.
Symptoms of the disease
The main criterion for the definition of madness is the loss of the ability of logical thinking. There is no clear manifestation of this state. It can manifest itself in the form of systematic inadequate behavior in a sick person or temporary - in a healthy one. The absence of logic in judgments and thinking refers to the manifestation of madness, as well as fear, rage, affect. The person ceases to understand the consequences of the actions committed. The main life goal for him is the satisfaction of animal instincts. He is not able to distinguish between reality and inner experiences. Man is immersed in the illusions of his imagination.
Madness can manifest itself in the form of the following symptoms:
- depression, mania;
- problems in communicating with others;
- lack of interest in life;
Psychologists have divided insanity into such states:
- Melancholy - manifested in the form of dejection, apathy, indifference, lethargy, mental torment. This condition is continuous.
- Mania and hysteria - manifested in the form of aggression, rage, impulsive actions.
The state of madness is constantly progressing, it becomes longer.Serious mental abnormalities can occur that become permanent.
How to define madness?
Identifying a madman is not difficult. If a person commits acts that do not fit into the framework of what is permitted, his speech is illogical - this is insanity.
Symptoms of the disease:
- lack of self-criticism;
- loss of self-control;
- self talk;
- mood swings that occur without reason.
Madness can be both beneficial and harmful. The first include actions that do not harm others. This may be love feats or the creation of poetry. If the act is capable of harming others, then such a person is forced to be treated in a hospital.
Sometimes creative people are considered insane. In their arguments, they go beyond the framework of public consciousness, perceive the world to others. But if a person is able to logically substantiate and derive a theory, then he cannot be called such. People with mental disabilities relate to people with disabilities if they lose their sense of reality and their actions can harm others, and are not able to care for themselves and provide.These people stand out for their appearance and non-standard behavior.
Causes of madness in modern medicine
The manifestations of this state are many and therefore the origin of the disease is significantly different. Various factors can provoke it.
Depending on the severity of the condition, madness is divided into:
- Weak - can sometimes occur even in a healthy person, against the background of the discrepancy of their own stereotypes Reluctance to accept reality leads to internal conflict. A person in such a state sometimes performs strange acts.
- Severe - in this form the patient can often have strong attacks that he cannot control;
- Acute - the condition is expressed in pathological changes in the psyche on a permanent basis.
Causes of madness in ancient times
Previously, the causes of madness were divided into:
- Supernatural. It was believed that this is a punishment for a man for bad deeds from higher powers. Also considered an obsession with demons. But if the madman brought new knowledge, then much would be forgiven.
- Physical - believed that the disease arose due to a head injury.
Modern medicine identifies completely different causes of insanity. Constantly being in a stressful situation, when a person does not see a way out of it and constantly feels anger, rage or grief. Such feelings can trigger the development of insanity. Another reason for psychiatry is the malfunction of the nervous system, which affects the conduction of neurotransmitters.
Cure madness before
At different times, methods of dealing with the disease differed significantly. In the years when insanity was thought to be a universe of demons, he was healed with spells, Bible reading and other magical methods. And before that, they even made trepanning of the skull. Although this method was ineffective, but then it became clear that the cause of the disease lies in the head. In the Middle Ages, it was believed that insanity is a physical disease. Methods of treatment in those days did not exist. People of that time tried to understand what kind of state it was - madness. Therefore, we were looking for the cause, alternately removing various parts of the body, which, naturally, did not bring results.
Cure madness now
In modern medicine in the treatment of insanity using medical and therapeutic techniques. Determine the treatment of the symptoms of madness and its severity.During rehabilitation, patients are isolated from society. A mild form of the disease is treated by a psychologist or psychiatrist. A specialist helps to accept reality and get rid of unwanted behavior.
The disease does not affect life expectancy if proper care and treatment is present. A person cannot independently identify his condition and is not able to independently undergo treatment. Therefore, such patients are often isolated from society. People suffering from this disease often commit crimes, after which they are sent to treatment forcibly.
This frustration since ancient times scarecrow people. Therefore, the image of the gods of madness look terrifying. In ancient Greece, Pan and Mania were the epitome of madness. The Greeks portrayed the Goddess with a strange smile, tongue sticking out and empty stare. Mania, according to legend, could stupefy a person and reward any obsession. This could be overconfidence or excessive passion for money.
Pan, according to legend, shocked his mother because he was born with horns, hooves and a goat's beard.Immediately after being born, he began to dance. Becoming a shepherd's patron, he constantly prevented them from sleeping with their screams. Both mythical heroes later became the names of psychiatric terms that characterize insanity. Mania is an excessive passion that can manifest to anything. The second term is panic attacks. They appear as an uncontrollable state of horror.
Lack of knowledge about mental illness led to mystic origins attributed to insanity. There were even rumors that one could draw inspiration from it. Such an opinion was especially popular in the Renaissance, when melancholia came into fashion. But modern psychologists have proven that giving a romantic color to insanity is a manifestation of the fear of it. And now there is a perception that genius borders on madness. Therefore, in the modern dictionary, a new term has emerged that characterizes the creative manifestation of madness - creativity. What is translated from English means "crazy."
So, in ancient times, madness was interpreted differently. He was assigned both to the punishment from above, and to genius.At various times, various treatment methods have been used. Some of them cause shock and disgust in modern man. In modern society, insanity is treated in specialized institutions with medical and psychotherapeutic methods.