Nizhnekamsk reservoir: current realities and problems
The Nizhnekamsk reservoir is the last but one in the Volga-Kama cascade created from 1937 to 1981. It was formed after the construction of a hydroelectric power station of the same name on the Kama River near Naberezhnye Chelny. Construction of the future reservoir began in 1963 with the resettlement of people living in the territory adjacent to Naberezhnye Chelny and subject to flooding. Forest land was also subject to logging. After commissioning in 1979 of the first unit of the Nizhnekamsk Hydroelectric Power Plant, the reservoir was filled with water to the level of 62 meters. This is the minimum level at which the operation of power equipment and the passage of ships through locks is possible.
Nizhnekamsk reservoir occupies part of the Kama-Belsk lowland and is located in the territory of three republics: Tatarstan, Udmurtia and Bashkortostan.At an intermediate mark of 62 meters, the volume of water in the man-made sea is almost 2.9 cubic kilometers, and the mirror area is 1,080 square kilometers. Along the Kama River the reservoir stretches for 185 km, the length along the channel of the Belaya River is 157 km. The coastline of the reservoir is very indented, and the shape from space resembles a blade.
Due to the insufficient water level, shallow waters up to 2 m deep occupy almost half of the reservoir area, therefore the fairway runs in the middle of the channel where the depths of the Nizhnekamsk reservoir reach 15-20 meters. The greatest width, 20 km, the reservoir reaches near the village of Ikskoe Ustye.
The problem of water level in the Nizhnekamsk reservoir
The output of hydroelectric power plants at design capacity with filling of the reservoir to the level of 68 meters was planned for 1990. But in connection with the flooding of the Nizhnekamsk reservoir, more than 78 thousand hectares of valuable agricultural land went under water. In order to achieve the planned electricity production at the Nizhnekamsk Hydroelectric Power Plant, it was necessary to raise the water level and increase the flooded area to 173 thousand hectares.
This caused mass protests of environmental organizations against the further construction of the hydroelectric complex, so the leadership of Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and Udmurtia,the territories of which were subject to flooding, it was decided to preserve the level of the reservoir at 62 meters. Only in 2002, a new agreement was signed to raise the mark to 63.5 meters. Due to the fact that the depths of the Nizhnekamsk reservoir have not reached the planned value, navigation is difficult for it, and engineering structures are beginning to collapse.
Conservation zones of the Nizhnekamsk reservoir
In the water area of Nizhnekamsk reservoir there are many nature protection zones. One of them is the park "Ust-Belsk". It is located at the confluence of the Kama and Belaya rivers on the border of the forest and forest-steppe zones. In the natural park, there are 39 species of steppe and forest-steppe representatives of the animal world: fast lizards, hamsters, steppe ferrets, foxes, roe deer, squirrels. In the coastal zone, there are meadow grasses and shrubs: alder, willow. The forest fauna is represented by coniferous plantations, birch, aspen, larch.
Another reserved place, part of the territory of which is located in the water area of the Nizhnekamsk reservoir, is the National Park "Lower Kama".There are about 90 endangered species of plants listed in the Red Book of Tatarstan, the animal world is represented by 46 species of mammals, the avifauna has more than 200 species of birds. Ecological tourist routes are laid in the park.
Top fishing spots
Due to the fact that the coastline of the reservoir is heavily indented, shallow bays along which a lot of fish are found along it. Fishing on the Nizhnekamsk reservoir is available almost everywhere, except for the areas that are declared conservation areas. The left bank of the reservoir is shallow, so it is not difficult to drive up to the water. On the right bank there are cliffs and ravines, the most convenient access roads to the fishing spot are in the vicinity of the villages of Zuyev Klyuchi, Izhevka, Krasny Bor, Byrgynda.
A real paradise for anglers is a place near the village of Ust-Belsk, where the White River flows into the Kama. From Izhevsk, a road with good asphalt pavement leads to it, there is a sign near the village indicating the path to the pond. Water can be reached at any time of the year. In the village there is a paid parking for cars, equipped for launching boats and boats.The locals take amateur anglers for a modest fee, and for those who appreciate comfort, a recreation center is open, where you can not only spend the night, but also rent a boat or a boat.
Fishing in the reservoir
Fishing on the Nizhnekamsk reservoir is very popular. The opportunity to enjoy the local beauty and get a good catch attract Nizhnekamsk reservoir to amateur anglers from many parts of Russia. Fishing is carried out at different depths from 1.5-2 meters in bays and streams to 7-9 meters in the fairway. Most often, fish are caught from boats and boats.
In the channels of the Belaya River, you can catch a pike, a perch, a bream by spinning. In the mainstream of the Kama, the perch, asp, catfish and carp bite well. Ruffs, roaches, rudd and gobies are common occurrences in bycatch. In season get a good catch sabrefish. In forums, fishermen share their successes: pike-perch weighing up to 8 kg are often found here, catfish up to 30 kg come across. During spawning from the end of April to mid-June there is a ban on fishing.
Rest on the Nizhnekamsk reservoir
Nizhnekamsk reservoir with its beautiful scenery and clean air is a great place to relax.Along the coastline are protected areas with numerous recreation centers, where you can spend time with your family or celebrate an anniversary or other celebration. As a rule, on the territory there are playgrounds for children, as well as fields for playing football or volleyball, in winter you can go ice skating or skiing, and then relax in the bath.
Often on the shore you can find tent camps in which romance lovers settled. Kebabs, songs by the fire - what else is needed to have a good weekend and be alone with the amazing nature of this region!