Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing?

Why is it so difficult for us to understand English, even if we know all the words? Because if you look closely, almost all sounds in English are different from Russian. Yes, they are similar - but just do not look at them in more detail. They are pronounced differently, they sound differently and merge into words they are also different.

Sounds in English

It may seem that the phonetics of the English language has many points of contact and that these sounds are interchangeable, however, when listening to speech, we cannot isolate individual words and distinguish words that are similar in pronunciation, but different in meaning. In fact, the phonetics of the English language has only three vowels - [e] - (e), [ɔ] - (o), [u] - (y) and five consonants - [k] - (k), [g] - (d), [m] - (m), [p] - (p), [b] - (b), which can be called similar to Russian. Five more diphthongs can be added to them: [ei] - (hey), [ai] - (ay), [au] - (ay), [ɔi] - (oi), [ou] - (oy) (among which the combination [ou] does not occur in the Russian language itself).At the same time, there are still differences -> nd <in diphthongs is not pronounced until the end, the consonants are more divorced from the vowels, which, in turn, sound hollower and more passable. Total theoretical phonetics of the English language has 12 vowels, 8 diphthongs and 24 consonants.

English phonetics

Vowel Pronunciation

Mono-vowel sounds:

[i:] - stretched> and <- / meal /;

[i] - short and hollow> and <- / if /;

[e] - similar to the sound> e <- / then /;

[æ] -> e <, aspiring to> a <, but not passing into it, more hollow than>> <- / mad /;

[a:] - stretched> a <, shifted to the back of the mouth - / start /;

[ɔ] - short, rather hollow> o <- / box /;

[ɔ:] - stretched> o <- / all /;

[u] - short> y <, pronounced with slightly rounded lips - / took /;

[u:] - stretched> y <, in which the lips do not protrude too far - / soon /;

[ʌ] - short, resembling aspiring to> a <sound> o <- / done /;

[ə] - a subtle, non-accentuated sound close to [ʌ], always unstressed - / taker /;

[ə:] - an outstretched sound resembling an aspiring person to> o <vowel> é <- / pearl /;

As in Russian, the phonetics of the English language contains two-part vowels (diphthongs):

[ei] - a combination of> hey <, with an unqualified> th <- / sake /;

[ou] - merged sounds> oy <, where> o <is longer, and> u <fuzzy - / show /;

[ai] - composite sound> ai <, in which> th <not fully expressed - / fine /;

[au] - the carryover sound> ay <, pronounced with a lingering> a <rising at the very end to> y <- / found /;

[ɔi] - a combination of> oh <, with the more obvious> o <and little distinguished> nd <- / boy /;

[iə] - starting with a hollow> and <sound> i <, turning into some middle between> e <and> a <- / here /;

[ɛə] - a hollow sound> e <, moving closer to the end in> a <, making up> ea <- / where /;

[uə] - passing from slightly rounded lips> y <, turning into> a <, close to> e, forming a sound> ea <- / poor /;

theoretical phonetics of the English language

Pronunciation of consonants

In some phrases, consonants may sound differently. But in all cases, without exception, they are pronounced firm. The phonetics of the English language does not contain softened consonants.

[f] - sound> f <, which, unlike Russian pronunciation, is produced by setting the lower lip by the upper teeth (along the inner edge), and not before (along the outer) - / fall /;

[d] - is similar to the sound> d <, but is produced not by a part of the tongue area, but by its very end - / drum /;

[v] - reminds> in <, but just as with the sound> f <, the lower lip goes under the upper teeth, and is not placed in front - / revolve /;

[k] - is similar to the sound> k <- / kettle /;

[θ] - is reproduced from the position between the sound> t <and the sound> c <, when the tongue slides from the sky onto the teeth and falls into the gap between the upper and lower rows - / third /;

[g] - analog sound> g <- / game /;

[ð] - the principle of reproduction is the same as that of sound [θ], i.e.the tongue, falling from the upper palate, falls between two rows of teeth, simultaneously pronouncing, as it were, and> t <and> s <, but, unlike the deaf [θ], subsoning occurs here, so it descends rather not from> t < k> s <, and from> t <k> s <- / this /;

[tʃ] - sound conforming to the sound> h <, but pronounced not by the platform of the language, but by the end - / child /;

[s] - consonant> with <, but if> with <is reproduced when the tongue of the alveoli of the upper palate is folded into a chute, then [s] is the end of the tongue located at the same point - / step /;

[dʒ] - a close combination of sounds> j <, however, pronounced with the tip of the tongue at the upper-alveoli, and not by joining the alveoli of the language platform - / joy /;

[z] - according to the method of reproduction akin> c <, i.e. at the end of the tongue attached to the protrusions of the sky above the upper teeth, but brought to the sonorous state, close to> 3 <- / zone /;

[m] - analogue> m <- / mild /;

[ʃ] - reminiscent> w <sound, which is carried out by adjoining the tip of the tongue to the alveoli in the upper sky - / shop /;

[n] - is close to> n <, only> n <is extracted by the tongue pad, and [n] - by the end - / november /;

[ʒ] - sound, extracted by the end of the language, similar to> f <- / measure /;

[ŋ] - vaguely resembles> n <the resulting sound and position of the mouth, but [ŋ] - more fuzzy, formed by the closure of the base of the tongue and the upper sky - / morning /;

[h] - close to the sound k> x <, produced by exhalation and more unhindered passage of air - / hot /;

[l] - sounds almost like> l <, however, instead of the pad, the end of the language is involved - / laught /;

[p] - is similar to> p <- / pork /;

[r] - as> p <without rumble, is made up by the basis of the language and the upper sky - / role /;

[b] - analogue> b <- / bird /;

[j] - sounds almost like> nd <, but more hollow and hard - / yellow /;

[t] - in tune with> t <, pronounced with the end of the tongue, suitable to the alveoli in the sky of the upper jaw - / tail /;

[w] - as sound> in <, tending to> y <, only the lips do not touch the ends of the teeth, as with actually> in <, i.e. lips rounded and slightly stretched - / wolf /.

Related news

Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing image, picture, imagery


Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing 8


Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing 78


Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing 52


Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing 62


Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing 92


Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing 65


Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing 59


Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing 82


Phonetics of the English language. What prevents us from focusing on hearing 38