Staff assessment methods. Certification and evaluation of staff
Personnel assessment in an organization is an important aspect of management practice and theory. The team of both private enterprise and state service should be able to realize the goals of the company, based on its values. In order to form and maintain a powerful team, in order to achieve the strategic objectives of the administration, it is necessary to systematically evaluate employees using various existing methods.
The most common form of performance audit is the certification and assessment of personnel, which is a special management measures periodically held by the organization in full compliance with national labor laws. The special commission is engaged in this, which includes representatives of management, heads of structural divisions, representatives of personnel service and other employees, one way or another related to personnel management.
Certification is a complex system in which various methods of an assessment are used.Its results are necessary for:
- Assessment of compliance of the employee of the current position, his specialization and skill level (grade), the possibility of salary revision at the appropriate levels for this position
- Monitoring the implementation of the goals set for employees during the previous certification of objectives.
- Setting tasks for the next period.
- Definitions for employee developmental activities.
- Personnel decisions: salary change, transfer of an employee to another grade, change in specialization, promotion / demotion, transfer to another job, dismissal.
- Changes in the compensation package by transferring to another grade (position).
Certification and evaluation of staff, if possible, should be carried out regularly. Its frequency depends on the position. When carrying out certification, certain characteristics of a particular person are compared: business skills, communication skills, professional qualifications. Then, the results are compared with the results of labor of other workers and industry benchmarks for the position.
The choice of indicators
Before developing a procedure for certifying employees, it is necessary to carefully examine all the functions and tasks that employees must perform in accordance with the job description. Based on the analysis, indicators are selected - personnel evaluation criteria.
For each specific function performed by the employee, or for each individual task, it is necessary to develop clear, well-understood for subordinate performance indicators and standards for their implementation. To establish work performance standards, the optimal number of indicators is selected, which will serve as benchmarks for assessing the various qualities of an employee. In practice, most often used for this specific set of evaluation criteria. It may include, for example, the following items:
- Professional knowledge.
- Executive and participation in the work.
- Attitude towards managers and employees.
- Quality of work.
- Intensity of work.
- The pace of work.
- Ability to self-expression.
- Ability to organize planning.
- Attitude to work.
Requirements for evaluation criteria
When defining standards, certain requirements must be observed.Thus, the criteria being developed should:
- Display the normative ideas about personal and business qualities, labor behavior, employee performance, based on organizational and individual goals.
- Have quantitative certainty to evaluate different levels of implementation.
- To be reliable and reliable in order to exclude subjective errors.
- Be clear to managers and performers.
In addition, the costs of the evaluation process should not exceed the benefits of its results. To obtain a thorough description of the object of analysis, you need to use a sufficient number of criteria.
Sequence of assessment processes
When evaluating and analyzing the effectiveness of workers, it is necessary to adhere to a certain sequence of actions in order to obtain well-structured data. Such analytical material is easier to process, and business personnel assessment will be as correct as possible.
- Initially, the specification of goals for implementation. They should be described as clearly as possible, otherwise the whole point of certification is lost.
- Then, the actually achieved level of performance of work according to the established standards is measured. The range of methods, methods, tools for this is huge and depends on the structure of the organization and the tasks it performs.
- The third step is a comparison of the actual results with the desired (or expected). This will help to objectively rank employees among themselves based on achievements and failures.
- The next stage is the mandatory discussion of the results of the assessment with employees in compliance with all rules of business ethics.
- In the end, motivational, qualification, administrative and other decisions are made based on the results of the research.
Whatever the assessment of personnel management, employees need to know what positive results they achieved in the reporting period, what prevented them from successfully solving tasks and what recommendations they could use in future activities.
Principles of evaluation
Methods of personnel assessment will function fully, subject to the following principles:
- Objectivity. Only reliable information bases and indicator systems are used in determining employee characteristics.The current activity, the period of work, the dynamics of results are taken into account.
- Publicity. Comprehensive familiarization of the inspected workers with the assessment methodology, bringing the results to the attention of interested parties.
- Efficiency. The speed and timeliness of certification, the regularity of its implementation.
- Democracy. Participation of the members of the group being checked in the assessment of subordinates and colleagues.
- Unity evaluation criteria.
- Clarity, accessibility and ease of procedure.
- Performance. The adoption of operational measures based on the results.
Evaluation of staff in the organization is carried out in two areas: current and future. Current activities are analyzed for performance and compliance with the requirements for a particular position. When planning future-oriented activities, managers determine what qualities need to be developed, what needs to be taught to the employee, how to improve their skills, and how best to unlock their potential.
In order for the assessment of the labor of the personnel of an organization, enterprise, institution to be adequate, it is recommended to begin with to determine a list of the most important indicators.For example, they may be:
- labor productivity;
- professional behavior;
- personal qualities.
Business evaluation of personnel must meet the following requirements: completeness and accuracy of the results, specificity, ensuring compatibility with the achievements of other employees, as well as with the previous period.
For different positions, key figures may vary. Somewhere important stress tolerance, somewhere quick decision-making, perseverance and thoroughness, the ability to persuade or the ability to say "no." Man cannot be perfect in everything. Therefore, determine 2-4 positions that are critical for a particular profession, and when checking focus on them.
Staff evaluation criteria
In order for an assessment of the professional activities of employees to be objective, you should use a variety of methods that best fit the structure of an organization, its goals, and the nature of the team’s activities. In professional sources described many methods of studying and analyzing the competence of employees. Among them:
- Certification is an assessment of staff performance, which uses an integrated approach using various methods. During the inspection, the attestation commission determines the candidate’s suitability for the vacant position or position he occupies.
- The forced choice method. This procedure consists of the experts choosing the most suitable characteristics for the employee, for example: the ability to plan their activities, sociability, work experience, etc.
- The descriptive method involves the creation of consistent, detailed characteristics of the positive and negative traits of each employee.
- Testing is a personnel evaluation system, in which professional knowledge and skills, abilities, motives, personality psychology are determined. These qualities are revealed with the help of special tests that can be decrypted using the "keys".
- A business game is a kind of management game, during which the knowledge and skills of an employee are analyzed, and his ability to work in a small group is also assessed.
- Management by objectives (in foreign literature - Management by Objective (MBO)). Evaluating the effectiveness of staff in this method provides for the general formulation of tasks by the manager and the employee,after which there is an assessment of the results of their implementation at the end of the reporting period. This system covers all positions in the company - from technical to institutional levels.
- Performance Management. According to this system, not only the end results of the employee’s work are assessed, but also his competencies - those personal qualities that are necessary to achieve the goals set.
- The assessment center (group and individual) is designed to test employees according to their competencies for specific personnel tasks. Personnel assessment methods may include behavioral interviews as well as case studies (game situations). For the selection of candidates for high positions and in the evaluation of top managers, emphasis is placed on behavioral interviews, and for the promotion of employees to the talent pool - on business games.
- Self-report (performance) is to conduct oral presentations of the head or specialist to the workforce, during which the implementation of the work plan and personal commitments is analyzed.
- 360 ° method. According to him, employees are evaluated by colleagues, managers and their subordinates.An individual and general questionnaire is filled in for each person.
- Assessment by the method of committees. In accordance with this method, the work of employees is discussed in a group, and it is divided into separate tasks. As a result, a list of actions is compiled, each of which is evaluated as successful and unsuccessful.
- The method of independent judges: an employee is assessed by independent persons who were not familiar with him (usually 5-7 persons act as “judges”). At the same time, personnel assessment methods are based on the principles of cross-examination.
- Interview: the applicant acts as a personnel manager and conducts interviews with several candidates for jobs. The ability to correctly analyze and select employees is checked.
- Observation In this case, the employee is assessed both in an informal way (at leisure, in everyday life) and in the work environment using the methods of moment observations and photographs of the working day.
It should also be noted that at each stage of an employee’s work in a company, you can use certain methods of assessment: for example, in the process of selecting an employee for a vacancy, you can use the method of interviewing and testing at the same time;
Scope of research
The analysis of personnel evaluation directly depends on the scope of research, the quantity and quality of the study methods used. According to the content, they can be partial, when they evaluate only certain qualities of the contractor or the level of performance of the work, and are complex, when they consider in a complex business and personal qualities, labor behavior, and results of activity.
According to the regularity of the study, they are divided into those that are organized constantly with a certain periodicity (depending on the position: once every six months, a year, two, etc.), and episodic evaluations, which are due to a certain stage (completion of the probationary period, promotion service, disciplinary liability, etc.).
Depending on the periodicity, the assessment is divided into current, final and prospective. The current determines the level of employee performance of duties at the moment. The final summarizes the performance of the work and its results at the end of a certain period. Perspective determines the ability, quality, motivation, expectations of the employee, that is, allows you to predict its potential.
Depending on the criteria, quantitative, qualitative, analytical (aggregation of all results on all criteria) assessment and definition of time reference points are distinguished. Evaluation of staff activity is divided into two types:
- Systemic: when all blocks of the analysis system are involved;
- Unsystematic: when the appraiser has the right to choose the criteria, methods, methods, tools, analysis procedures.
Subjects of evaluation
This concept refers to employees assessed by their supervisor, colleagues, clients, subordinates. They can also be subjects of a comprehensive, so-called 360 ° assessment, taking into account all the factors listed in the complex.
In addition, the so-called self-assessment, or internal evaluation of staff, is practiced. Information in this case is obtained after conducting motivational monitoring. The combination of conclusions on external and internal testing allows you to more fully implement the orienting and stimulating functions of research.
Evaluation of staff work allows you to:
- To evaluate the professionalism of the employee, namely: the level of professional training (knowledge, skills),level of psychological preparation (orientation of the personality, motives of behavior, adaptability, character traits, temperament), labor efficiency (productivity, quality of labor), striving for rationalization and inventions.
- Develop recommendations for the development of personal and professional qualities of workers.
- Determine the degree of compliance of wages, its effectiveness with the efforts of the employee and his expectations.
- Determine the main directions of staff development.
- To form an effective mechanism of professional motivation of employees.
Evaluation of personnel in foreign countries is somewhat different from how this process takes place in our country. In the United States and Western Europe, apply a special test for personnel evaluation - Bussiness Personality Test (BPT). It contains 100 questions, the results of personnel evaluation vary on a scale from 0 to 10 points. This allows you to receive much more information from each question for analysis than using the traditional “no / yes” scale, or choosing from the given answer choices.
In the giant concern, General Electric, it was determined that criticism is an ineffective means of informing subordinates about shortcomings in their professional activities.In order to provide feedback, it is necessary to conduct a bilateral discussion on specific issues of improvement. In Japan, personnel evaluation is based on the production philosophy adopted here, that is, the abilities of each individual employee are determined. The peculiarity of such an assessment of personnel is its regularity and obligation for all.
In Russia, applied and analytical methods of personnel evaluation, and special electronic devices operating by analogy "lie detectors." For example, the device “Luch” created by the scientists of the Institute of Psychology allows specialists to check such human qualities as intelligence and speed of reaction.
Not all of the above methods are equally good in the implementation of the personnel assessment process. Their effectiveness depends on their goals, the level of maturity of the company, its objectives and the type of corporate culture. Equally important is the assessment of personnel training, knowledge of theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Agree, it is better to certify an employee using the performance management method,since each company works directly on the end result, which is customer satisfaction and profit. Therefore, in order to achieve these goals, it is necessary to periodically check how the work is performed by each employee.