State Nature Reserve "Denezhkin Stone": description
In our country, there are many unique conservation areas. National reserves and natural parks, protected by the state, are considered as standards of the natural environment. These places are considered the richest repositories of natural genetic material. They are needed in order to preserve and multiply many endangered species of plants and animals.
Moreover, unique nature conservation zones contribute to the normalization of the ecological status of the entire region and can be represented by various research centers and complexes where scientists study the flora and fauna in their natural environment.
Russia is a huge country famous for the unique wonders of nature. We have everything: sunny seaside resorts, and the highest peaks of snow-capped mountains, and deep, crystal-clear rivers and lakes, and amazing taiga, and the rarest representatives of the plant world, flora and fauna.
One of these unique natural zones is the Denezhkin Stone Reserve, located on the territory of the Ural Mountains. Today, these beautiful mountain taiga sites are considered to be a conservation area of great research and environmental awareness. However, the creation and activities of this reserve have a complex history.
Where does this name come from?
According to ancient Ural legends, Mansi (one of the indigenous peoples of those places) had a sacred mountain, where they conducted pagan rites, offered prayers and offered gifts to their gods — put coins on stones. Perhaps due to these money the sacred peak got its name. That is why the reserve is called “Denezhkin Stone”.
History of the creation and activities of the reserve
After the end of the Second World War, the scientific community of the Urals was asked to create a unique nature conservation area, combining two parts of the world - Europe and Asia. Already in 1946, the Denezhkin Stone State Reserve, named after the famous mountain, was created.
The area of protected areas as a result of endless reorganizations was constantly changing: it was either reduced, then increased. However, in 1961, by order of N. S.Khrushchev, the status of the reserve with the "Money Stone" was removed altogether, and in its place was formed by the eponymous state timber industry enterprise.
Revival of protected areas
Only in 1992, managed to organize a new reserve. Now it is still much lower than in the area of the original territories - they have been almost halved. Today, the Perm Territory and the western slopes of the middle Urals, the Shemur range and basins of some rivers are excluded from the conservation area. Today, the Denezhkin Stone State Nature Reserve does not have a coherent regional structure.
Now its area is 78,192 hectares.
The value of environmental object
"Denezhkin Stone" - the reserve, where there are many unique species of plants and animals. The main objective of this conservation area is to preserve and increase rare species of flora and fauna that can completely disappear from the face of the Earth.
Initially, it was created in order to preserve and carefully study the large taiga massifs located in the very center of the Northern Urals. Many species of migratory birds stop here at the nesting place.Therefore, today the reserve is of global importance for ornithologists around the world.
Unique microclimate of the Sverdlovsk region reserve
"Denezhkin Stone" - an area with pronounced seasons. Winter in these places is long and harsh; in the cold season, the thermometer may drop to -40 ° C. The summer season is short: the hottest month is July, when the air warms up to 13.5 - 15˚С. Frosts can occur even in summer. An interesting fact is that the average annual rainfall on the eastern slopes of the reserve is much less than on the western outskirts. It is also known that two thirds of annual precipitation falls on a short summer. In some places of the reserve, the thickness of the snow cover can reach 130 cm, while it is quite stable and can last up to 7 months.
Relief and soil
The famous hill, of the same name with the name of the reserve, occupies the entire eastern margin of the conservation area and the lowland of the river Solva. The Denezhkin stone range is located slightly away from the main mountain formations of the region. Its slopes are steep, with a variety of formations output of the main rocks. There are pronounced circuses - the place of formation and feeding of glacial masses.
The maximum height of the mountain is 1492 meters above sea level.
The territory of the Ural Mountains is a real taiga kingdom. It is worth noting that this is a closed area, inaccessible for tourists and hunters. Due to the administrative measures taken and the inaccessibility of these places, this conservation area has hardly suffered from the adverse effects of man-made impact. Despite the massive deforestation for almost thirty years, the protected area of the reserve has fully recovered and almost returned to its original appearance.
The trees and plants of the Denezhkin Stone reserve are fir, cedar, pine and spruce, in some places there is an admixture of birch. Aspens and rowan trees are often found in the undergrowths, the bark of which is enjoyed by local elks.
The lower grassy layer consists mainly of ferns and large grasses. Large grasses are more than 550 species of higher vascular plants, relict and endemic representatives of the flora are found. It is in these places you can find three types of plants that are considered endangered and therefore are included in the pages of the Red Book of RussiaFederation. These are plants such as Helma's minuartia, lady's slipper, real, leafless chord.
In these places you can see 135 species of birds, 111 of which fly here to the nesting place. The remaining species stop only during the autumn-spring spans. However, in recent years, new, atypical for these places of birds are increasingly noticed here.
Today, the reserve is inhabited by such birds as the golden eagle, the big curlew, the white-backed woodpecker, the red-skinned horse, the river and common cricket, the spotted cricket. There are gray fry, warblers, small flycatchers, white-winged crossbills, plantains. The reserve is inhabited by wood-grouse and grouse, woodcocks, wood pigeons, merganser and gogol, mallards and teals. There are many species of woodpeckers, hawks and owls.
On the territory of the tundra slopes are found partridges and meadow skates. On the rocks and stony areas of the reserve there are meadow chamois and ordinary heater. In the zone of mountain rivers there are small dippers.
Today, protected by the reserve are birds listed in the Red Book of the Middle Urals. Among them are Piskulkas, whooper swans, golden eagles, white-tailed eagles, derbniki, red-footed falcons, owls, sparrows and owls, hawk owls, and brown owls.The nutcracker plays a special role in the life of the reserve, which contributes to the spread of cedar pine seeds.
The main representatives of the fauna of the reserve are typical taiga animals perfectly adapted to live in harsh natural conditions. Almost all species of mammals characteristic of the North Ural region live here - 38 species from 6 orders.
Of the insectivorous representatives of the fauna, the common and middle shrew, the common mole, are known. Shrew can be found in pine thickets, and moles are found only in meadows. From the bats, such species as the whiskered night-bed, the pond-water bed, the northern leather jacket and the long-eared bat have been studied. Typical representatives of rodents living on the territory of the protected area are: white hare, common squirrel, Asian chipmunk, red, red-gray and red vole.
In the Denezhkin Stone Reserve, predators of the Mustelidae are widely represented - these are wolverines, columns, stoats, weasels, European and American minks, martens and sables. A hybrid of a marten and sable - kudus is often found in the reserve zone.
There are lynxes and bears all over the reserve. Bears, coming out after hibernation, feed on warm slopes and thawed clearings. In the summer they feed on the banks of rivers and forest glades with large grasses. In the autumn they feed on the pine cone and berries.
From hoofed inhabitants of the reserve there are elk and wild boar. In the past, reindeer and roe deer were found on the taiga-tundra slopes, but to date there is no information about them.
Rare animals of the reserve "Denezhkin Stone"
The rare or almost extinct animals of the region include: reindeer, tarpana and river beaver - they have zero category of danger of extinction. Today, it is already impossible to meet such animals in the territories of the Northern Urals - they have not been seen there for several years. It remains only the hope that, perhaps, these animals managed to survive in the reserved, hard-to-reach places for humans.
Moreover, there is a definite tendency towards the complete disappearance of desmans, saigas and marals - the number of these representatives is rapidly decreasing every year. These animals belong to the first category of danger of extinction.Today they can still be found on the territory of the reserve, but they have become very rare in other territories of the Urals.
North-Ural mink and otter belong to the second category of danger of extinction - their number decreases annually, but they are still found in the Urals. Nevertheless, these animals are listed on the pages of the Red Book of the Urals. The greatest number of them lives in the reserved places of the “Denezhkin Stone”.
Representatives of the third category live in rather limited territories of the Urals - big jerboas, lemmings, hamsters and flying squirrels. The largest number of these representatives of the Ural fauna are well established in the main protected zone of the region.
There are still fourth and fifth categories of risk of extinction. Animals belonging to these groups are not too rare and are not at all on the verge of extinction. They can be found almost everywhere everywhere in the Urals, including on the territory of the “Denezhkinogo Stone”, where they are perfectly acclimatized. These include the steppe pikas, brown ushans, two-tone leather coats, natusius bats, black dwarf bats, red evening feasts, gray and jungarian hamsters.