State regulation of the labor market. Modern labor market
For the Russian state, the role of the most important player in all key areas of the country's development is historically characteristic. can be traced in areas such as the labor market. What are the features of the work of state institutions in this area? What is the specific development of the labor market in Russia?
About the labor market
The modern labor market is a special economic sphere that plays a crucial role in the national economic system of Russia. Researchers most often study its categories such as wages, employment rates of citizens, unemployment, the dynamics of vacancies, the redistribution of jobs by industry. Due to the importance of this sphere in the national economy in many countries of the world, including Russia, there is a state regulation of the labor market. When are the authorities most actively involved in this process?
State policy directions
State regulation of the labor market in Russia is carried out in the following main areas. First, it is stimulating employment, as well as an increase in the number of jobs in organizations and institutions owned by the state. Secondly, it is the promotion of the development of institutions whose activities are aimed at increasing labor productivity, training new personnel. Thirdly, it is the implementation of programs to solve problems related to the search and recruitment of personnel. Fourth, it is the fight against unemployment and the support of citizens without employment.
What, in fact, is the state regulation of the labor market in the Russian Federation? First of all, this is the creation of conditions under which the largest possible number of citizens can provide for themselves. The less unemployment - the lower the burden on the state budget in terms of providing measures of various kinds of support to the population. The state is interested in building a competitive economy, on the quality of functioning of which social and political stability depends.This is largely determined by the qualifications of personnel, and also to a large extent by the level of labor productivity dependent on it.
Labor reserves - the foundation of the economy
The state should build a strategy for the long-term development of the economy, ensure the fundamental factors of sustainability of the political course, which largely depend on the quality of functioning of the national economic system. Among the key criteria here is the adaptation of the economy, especially in the aspect of employment, to changes in the market. The fact is that with the capitalist model, in accordance with which most countries are developing today, periodic changes are possible in the structure of certain industries, the saturation of some individual markets, the emergence of new ones. These processes form new demands for labor markets. If they are held at the national level, then the state becomes the key institution designed to ensure the course of the country's social and political development to the market challenges.
Forms of public policy
State regulation of the labor market, in accordance with popular concepts of Russian experts, can be expressed in two basic forms - active and passive.Regarding the first, it is understood that work will be conducted in the direction of creating jobs, stimulating employment, and combating unemployment. The passive form of state participation in the development of the labor market, as a rule, boils down to material support of people without employment through the payment of benefits.
Let us consider how the state approaches the solution of such a problem as the regulation of employment and the labor market, which tasks are set for it. First of all, this is attracting new investments into the economy, which allows us to open up new productions, develop industries, and as a result create jobs.
Also, the state needs to ensure employment of the population through the organization of the work of the appropriate appointment of services and labor exchanges.
The next necessary area of work for the authorities is the promotion of business development, especially for small and medium enterprises. It is this kind of firm that economists believe can provide employment for people in small cities where there are no strategic, state-run enterprises, as well as in industries for which the presence of state assets is uncharacteristic and not always advisable in a free market (catering, services, retail) .
Another important task of the state is the effective regulation of migration processes. Experts believe that very many problems characteristic of the labor market are predetermined by the geographical aspect of the Russian economy. There are cities where there is simply no work due to the fact that the location of enterprises there is unprofitable. And in this case, the people living there, you need to somehow find employment. The state can do this by organizing effective programs to facilitate the relocation of citizens to industrialized areas.
Public policy levels
Continuing to study the theoretical aspects reflecting the methods of state regulation of the labor market, we can consider at what levels the relevant policy of the authorities can be implemented. Experts identify three.
First is the macro level. The key role is played by the highest institutions of state power. Their functions are the development of laws regulating the labor market in Russia, as well as the implementation of accepted norms. This definition of priorities in the development of employment of citizens in relation to current areas of socio-economic development.This is the organization of the correct interaction of political institutions and institutions that solve practical problems associated with the development of the labor market.
Secondly, this is the regional level. In many ways, it reproduces all the marked directions of work of state institutions at the macro level. Only the relevant competencies in this case are endowed with not federal, but regional authorities. At the same time, the labor market and employment of the population can form problem areas specific for individual subjects of the federation. Institutions responsible for conducting policy at the macro level may not take into account the relevant regional characteristics, and therefore the authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation will work more efficiently here. The level under consideration is characterized by the solution of questions of the effective adaptation of key principles of state policy in the sphere of citizens' employment to local specificities.
Thirdly, this is the local level. As a rule, it focuses on tasks related to the correct implementation of public policy in relation to specific objects of regulation.That is, for example, for how well the city employment service functions, first of all, the local authorities of a particular locality should be responsible. At the same level, issues related to the calculation and payment of benefits, with the consultation of citizens, with information on vacancies that open in the city.
A well-functioning state or municipal center of employment of the population, as many experts believe, should be one of the key structures for employers in the locality in terms of attracting new personnel. At the same time, analysts say, the role of private recruitment agencies and recruitment services is also very important. If constructive interaction is established between them and the state structures that are designed to ensure employment of the population, this will certainly play a positive role in the development of the city’s labor market. Private and public organizations in this sense should not be competitors, experts say.
The specifics of the Russian labor market
What features characterize the labor market in Russia? It is interesting, for example, to pay attention to the structure of demand for employees in various sectors.There are analytical studies in which it is noted that, in particular, the greatest demand in the labor market is traced in the sphere of trade, procurement and supply. The next branch in the “rating”, as analysts were able to calculate, is production. The construction, transport and raw materials sectors are quite popular. According to many experts, the most promising and priority for the state, which is due to well-known political events, is agriculture.
At the same time, the structure of proposals from job seekers, as analysts were able to identify, is somewhat different. One of the studies says, in particular, that with regard to the sphere of trade, where the demand for personnel is highest, there is a shortage of offers from candidates for employment. It looks quite balanced how the experts managed to determine the situation in the field of transport. Among the most competitive areas in which the number of proposals is significantly greater than the number of vacancies - the civil service, law, financial industry, media, top management.
The main problems of the labor market in Russia
According to some analysts, the patterns noted above reflect a rather noticeable problem characteristic of the Russian labor market - an imbalance between the needs of employers and the supply of corresponding labor resources, determined by the wishes of citizens. In some areas there are not enough specialists, in others there are much more applicants than vacancies. Employment and unemployment are spheres, the solution of difficulties in which requires increased attention to the problem under consideration, both from business and from the point of view of state activities.
The situation that has developed on the Russian labor market, according to experts, is caused by a variety of factors. Among the key analysts are the decline in the industry in the 90s and, as a result, the decline in the popularity of professions related to manufacturing and the "real sector" of the economy. Young people began to learn exactly those specialties that are now not among the most sought-after ones.
Inconsistency of choice
Another feature of the labor market in Russia: according to some studies, Russian citizens tend to change jobs frequently.True, there is a version in the expert community that this is more of a positive trend: it says that new enterprises are opening that are capable of offering increasingly competitive pay conditions. However, there are analysts who believe that such a situation may also have a negative effect. In their opinion, wages in Russia do not always correspond to real labor productivity, and companies do not always calculate the correlation of salary costs with the prospects for revenue. By luring specialists from the market for higher wages, firms, in the event of certain crisis trends, may encounter significant difficulties in financial support for personnel.
Factors of the Russian labor market development
One way or another, the Russian state strives to ensure that employment and unemployment are managed categories, that their dynamics are controlled by political institutions and meet the priorities of the country's socio-economic and political development. What are the factors that can directly affect the success of the state policy in the sphere of labor, if we talk about Russia? Experts identify the following.
First, the labor market and population employment in Russia is largely determined by the structure of the national economy, which, in turn, depends on the priorities of the state. Today, many economists estimate the national economic system of the Russian Federation as being largely dependent on the export of raw materials, as well as on budget support (which, in turn, is largely dependent on revenues from the sale of relevant products abroad). In order to occupy as many people as possible, the state, economists believe, should promote the development of non-primary industries.
Secondly, the labor market and employment policy in our country largely depend on the quality of the functioning of the institutions of political governance, and not so much at the federal level, but at the regional level, and to a large extent at the municipal level. Many of the problems, experts say, are connected, in particular, not with the quality of legislation, but with the level of its implementation in specific subjects, cities, regions. Local authorities are responsible for this. The fact that a particular employment center in a given locality works does not follow the federal law.
Thirdly, the solution of problems related to the employment of citizens, experts say, depends largely on the quality of the national education system. According to some analysts, here, it may be worthwhile to draw attention to the Soviet experience in training in key specializations for the country's economy, which, for a number of reasons, many educational institutions of Russia have decided to give up. Of course, the best training practices used in Western countries also deserve attention, and it is advisable to introduce them in Russian schools, secondary specialized educational institutions, universities - experts say.