The barn is part of a peasant farm.
An important part of the rural landscape is the farmstead. In addition to the main housing, the complex of buildings includes premises for household purposes - a stable, a hayloft, a barn, a bathhouse, a barn. Bread barn - this is one of the most significant buildings in the estate of the peasant.
The importance of cereal crops
Cereals from antiquity - an important object of cultivation and cultivation. The likely reason for the fact that cereals have won a solid niche in the diet of people is their composition. High carbohydrate content provides good saturability. Groats and flour are products that are vital to any peasant family. Farmers everywhere grew grain bread for constant consumption. To store the harvest, it was necessary to construct storage buildings. All cereals grown in the fields, called zhitom. Therefore, the old name of the barn was “the breadbasket”.
The role of the barn in the life of the peasant family
The main purpose of the barn is the storage of bulk products. He must reliably protect the resulting crop from damage, fire and theft.
The meaning of the word “barn” in translation from Persian is “barn, storeroom”. A feature of this most important commercial building is its location. The barn was set at a distance from the main housing, but under the condition: it must be viewed. A warehouse for storing grain could be built somewhere in front of the windows, at the vegetable garden or opposite the gate. With a one-sided type of village building, bread barns were built on the opposite side of the street or “in the back”. Magical rituals were often performed in these buildings. The choice of place for ceremonies was not accidental. For peasants who spent their lives worrying about the future harvest, a barn is an image of fertility.
Features of construction
Solid barns were a sign of prosperity and success of the farmer. To protect the grain from rodents and moisture, the barn frame was put on high supports. The hole at the bottom of the door served as a manhole for the cat. The special structure of the roof in the form of a log roll reliably protected the grain from precipitation and attempted theft.
Grain barn is a very solid structure. Massive logs logs accurately, without gaps, fitted to each other.The floor, recruited from good quality, without gaps, is raised high above ground level. The old barn creates the impression of a particularly reliable farm building, able to resist illegal entry. In the frame of powerful jambs were strong doors that were locked with a massive lock. Forged grilles were inserted into narrow windows.
The architecture of these agricultural buildings is quite diverse, it was difficult to see two identical barns. They could be distinguished by the presence of a shed or top extension, an external or internal staircase, a slope of the roof, and the location of the door.
In former times, the area of the estate land was used to be used most rationally. The old barn was often built in two floors. The internal layout of outbuildings is distinguished by a carefully thought-out arrangement of household items for greater ease of use. The place for storage of bulk products (grain, groats, flour) was determined on the first floor, in the bottom of the cage, located along the walls. Susekom was the name of a long, high chest with several compartments, built of tightly fitting boards.Under it was a low box, which received grain from the bottom of the barrel. Opposite the door was a passage. In the upper floor of the barn, utensils that were not used on the farm on a daily basis were stored on the transverse slopes and wide shelves.
During the Soviet collectivization period, such a warehouse building as a collective farm barn was gradually replaced by small barns and elevators for storing large volumes of grain crops.
For a long time among the peasants, after the grain bread was removed from the fields, the most important task was to preserve the harvested harvest with such difficulty. The best place to store cereals was barn. This is a warehouse building in which the peasant kept stocks of cultivated crops - wheat, oats or barley. The life of a Russian farmer was inextricably linked with this important economic structure. In modern life, the farmer no longer needs a device for individual barns.