The productive forces are ... The definition, structure and factors of the development of the productive forces
Productive forces are an aggregate combination of production and human society, which has specific knowledge and sufficient experience for effective activity. The task of people is to put knowledge into practice in order to make production possible. To some extent, the productive forces are one of the basic needs of society, as it allows you to get the products required for the modern human life. The topic has repeatedly attracted the attention of world-class thinkers, and is no less applicable in practice. Productive forces are the object of specific studies of the famous Karl Marx.
Productive forces are a complex concept. It includes both organizational approaches and scientific capabilities.In the framework of the implementation of optimal production strategies, a correct approach to the division of labor and successful cooperation options are necessary. At present, it is customary to say that the productive forces (PS) are one of the key social production factors, determined by the characteristic economic freedom of a society.
Social, economic, production - all these categories are usually attributed to objective relationships, which allows us to speak about their materiality. Success is determined by volitional efforts, a conscious attitude to the question, but in many respects the feedback is valid: the relations themselves determine consciousness and will. Historians, economists, political scientists have repeatedly considered various reasons, their systems of interconnections to identify why a certain definite approach, changing with time, is more characteristic of a particular period of development of social relations. Scientists faced the task of determining the most significant factors correcting the nature of relationships in society.
Relations determined by the factor of ownership are usually divided into exchange, distribution.Through them, the production structure, social aspects of the production process. In such a situation, production can be defined as the fact of the formation of a social product by the application of efforts. It is these efforts that are called the main productive forces. It is customary to speak of human masses with specific tools. It is equally important to know how to make the tools work.
Why do you need it?
Productive forces, productive relations - the basic concept for the production at the level of society in principle. The correctness of the functioning of such a system allows to obtain the necessary products used for further development and improvement. Social, economic relations established in the human community in a certain system, become an indispensable form of social production.
And if more clearly?
Productive forces, productive relations are less, more. In some situations, an increase is observed, other conditions provoke a decline in the indicator. On the basis of the observed dynamics, it is possible to formulate a theory of development, revealing the patterns of distribution of productive forces, the influence of the factor on social aspects.
For economic, social relations characteristic of a modern type of society, it is customary to say that the level of development of productive forces is the most significant factor that allows to reveal the dominant type of relationship. The structure of productive forces gives no less significance. To identify the level describing a certain social, historical organism, it is necessary to determine how voluminous the social product created was, identify the ratio with the number of people and calculate the indicator per person. The level of development of the productive forces is called productivity. This parameter characterizes social production as a complex object.
Productivity is a complex phenomenon, determined by the interaction of several factors. A considerable influence is exerted by the labor force, at the same time - the machinery used in the production process, as well as a number of interrelated factors caused by social development. Something is adjusted by the natural conditions that characterize a specific workflow.
Suppose labor is involved in the process of harvesting some crop, fishing or hunting. The product that will be obtained in the course of such activity depends on the time spent, the devices used, the wealth of natural resources. An equal level of technical support in different natural conditions substantially corrects the productive forces of the region.
Nature and production
The resources available to the public by virtue of living in a particular locality are not only a narrowly applicable category of objects of labor. Often this is a factor in the development of the productive forces and a means. A classic example: land for agriculture, classified as an essential element of the PS. The process of such an awareness of the importance of land within the economic system, production processes was the result of historical development. The use of territories as a means of labor is currently considered an obvious indicator of improved PS.
To some extent, modern productive forces in the field of agriculture depend on natural factors.A good example is fertility. It determines how productive the farming process will be. Applying the same technical means, resorting to similar systems of work performance, spending equal time intervals and labor resources, social production will be significantly higher if the land is good in quality.
However, natural fertility is not the only factor associated with the natural state of the environment. So, there are regions where it is easy to process the soil, but in other localities the task causes considerable difficulties. Climatic conditions also largely determine productivity. In the subtropical, tropical zones all year round, plants can be grown and harvested, and in the temperate zone more than one harvest per year will not be received, and the period is strictly limited to the season. The north, the more difficult agriculture.
What does this mean?
These examples clearly indicate that PS have a close relationship with two phenomena:
- natural features;
- the result of historical, social improvement.
It is customary to talk about natural and social productivity, closely interacting with each other.On the basis of this, total PS and social ones are distinguished, for describing each phenomenon they reveal the level of its development.
As it was before?
For a society before the period of capitalism, social PS and total varied. In some periods, the difference was greater, in other eras - less. Over time, mankind has moved to the industrial form, which allowed to significantly reduce the gap. At some points it disappears completely. In such a situation, the development of PS is assessed, without specifying additional characteristics.
The thinkers, the economists who formulated the basic concepts of historical capitalism, formulated such ideas from which it can be concluded: at that moment many intuitively approached the understanding of the difference between social, natural PS. At the same time, no clear wording was expressed, since the realities of those times differed significantly from modern ones. The basic tenets of historical materialism that were formulated were “children of their time”, that is, students of capitalism.
Not one step back
Progress PS involves increasing the social component of production productivity.Undoubtedly, it can be increased by increasing labor productivity, which is due to the increase in the qualifications of the attracted labor force, and the greater experience of each employee. Not less impact has increased workflow intensity and the use of the most modern technical, technological solutions to optimize labor. An important aspect is the organizational improvement of the production process. Other analysts pay attention: at a certain point in time, all the above methods are exhausted, the situation turns into a dead end.
There is only one way, which gives access to unlimited growth of PS without any speculative limits. Technical and technological social development is assumed. From the period of the formation of capitalist rudiments to the present day, the production process has been developing along such a vector. Increasing productivity through technical aspects seemed to many for a long time to be the only way without alternatives. Against the background of this approach, the evolution of PS began to be identified with technical progress.
Marx and Engels
The idea of matching the evolution of the PS and the progression of the available technology to the public is quite clearly expressed in the writings of Marx. It was he who wrote that the acquisition of PS allows humanity to change production methods, which makes it possible to adjust life support. Consequently, changes are observed in social relationships. Marx put it this way: “the community using the manual mill is headed by the overlord, but the steam people who have got their hands are headed by capitalists”.
Similar postulates can be found in the ideas and collected works of Engels. This famous fundamentalist noted that savage tools form the corresponding society, and the newest devices - capitalist.
Technique and not only
Modern specialists, developing a methodology, analyzing the economy, social aspects, are ready to argue with the most famous thinkers of the last century. Of course, for the PS level, the quality of the equipment used by people at work is important, it determines a lot, but this cannot be called the only factor. The social aspects of improving PS are not only technology,but also a number of incentives affecting human productivity, the first place among which is taken to be given to the system of economic and social relationships.
With equal conditions of availability of modern technology and different economic factors, in a different social environment, people produce a significantly different amount of product that is important to the public. PS is not the only thing that influences relationships in the framework of the labor process, while such relationships always have a strong impact on PS. Some thinkers of our day suggest that all non-technical factors correcting the level of PS should be merged into the category of social humanitarian.
And you can be easier
Production technology has repeatedly been the focus of specific research on PS. Many authors seek to simplify this concept, which led to the following content: a complex of machines, tools. But a more extensive interpretation involves the specific industry systems used in the workflow tools. To describe the technical level of the PS, it is necessary not only to analyze which machines and tools are used in the working process, but also to evaluate equipment that does not belong to this category.
With examples, this can be illustrated quite clearly as follows: the ancient Romans had horse-drawn sleds, whose plowing force was half a ton. During the Middle Ages in European countries, this value increased fivefold and reached two and a half tons. Due to such a leap invention of the eighth century - horse harness, adopted from the Eurasian nomads. Such an improvement in the working process made it possible to use in agriculture not only bulls, but also horses, on the basis of which the productivity of the industry increased significantly.
And how to increase?
From the above, it can be concluded that an increase in PS is allowed by various methods. This is a technical approach, social aspects, some others. In particular, social productivity increases if working time is lengthened. This method was called temporal. An alternative way is a demographic one, which implies an increase in the share of able-bodied people in society. Analyzing changes in production methods in different historical periods, it is impossible to capture the whole picture, excluding these aspects from the sphere of attention.