TORAH. Far East

We are getting acquainted with such a relatively new phenomenon for our country as the territories of advanced socio-economic development (TOSEDs, or Torahs). Let's start with the Far East.
TORAH. Far East investment, rubles, established, Amount, private, development, Area, directions, main, industry, territory, leading, residents, Work, activity, household, TOR, rural, Primorsky, region

To begin with, let us remember how TORs appeared in Russia in general. For the first time, the proposal to create a network of advanced development areas, in which special conditions would be created for the organization of non-oil production, was voiced by President Vladimir Putin in his address to the Federal Assembly on December 12, 2013. A year later, on December 29, 2014, the law "On the territories of advanced socio-economic development in the Russian Federation" was adopted. In addition, amendments were made to the Civil, Urban Planning, Labor, Land, Forestry Codes of the Russian Federation and a number of other federal, regional and local regulations.
It is for the first time that the law clearly defined the ToRD: "a part of the territory of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation, including a closed administrative-territorial entity,in which, in accordance with the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation, a special legal regime has been established for carrying out entrepreneurial and other activities in order to create a favorable environment for attracting investments, ensuring accelerated economic development and creating comfortable conditions for the livelihoods of the population. "
The territories of advanced development can be created only for a limited period of time (70 years). This period may be extended by a separate government decree. The decree on the opening of the next priority development territory should provide for:
- a list of economic activities in the implementation of which there is a special legal regime for business activities;
- the minimum amount of capital investments of residents of the PDA in the implementation of relevant economic activities in this territory;
- the provision on the application or non-use on TOR of the customs procedure of the free customs zone established by the customs legislation of the Customs Union;
- description of the location of the boundaries of the TOP;
- if necessary - the minimum requirements for the level of technologies and production methods applied by residents of TOR, equipment for relevant types of economic activity.
Individual entrepreneurs and legal entities that have entered into an agreement with the management company on the implementation of activities in this territory may become residents of the territories of priority development. Various privileges can be established for them: on taxes and contributions (lowering or zeroing the rate for a limited period or indefinitely), on the procedure for using land plots and resources (connecting to communications, simplified paperwork, etc.), on rent , under state control and supervision, the possibility of attracting foreign qualified specialists without the usual permits and quotas, etc.
At the same time, it was determined that in the first three years, Torahs can be created only in the Far Eastern Federal District and in the territories of single-industry towns with the most complex socio-economic situation. However, such territories already exist in other federal districts.
With the proposals for the creation of TORs, the leaders of the federation and federal agencies can appeal to the government. As a rule, TORs do not appear simply in the confluence of formal circumstances and the development potential existing in the regions: they are all created for specific key investors. This is done primarily to ensure that the material and non-material resources invested by the state in the creation of the next project will have their effect.
The organization and development of TORs are managed by management companies. They are created in the form of joint-stock companies with 100% state participation. It is management companies that ensure the availability of infrastructure and communications, the provision of various services to residents (customs, legal, etc.) and solve other day-to-day issues related to the activities of TORs.
In the Far East, the TORs are managed by the Corporation for the Development of the Far East. In addition to the territories of priority development located on the territory of the Far Eastern Federal District, it also manages the free port of Vladivostok.
Now on the mainland of the Far Eastern Federal District and Sakhalin there are 17 priority development areas.
TOR "Mountain Air" (Sakhalin Region): established in 2016, the main direction is the development of tourism. The total area of ​​the TOP - 20.3 thousand hectares. The amount of private investment attracted is 20.9 billion rubles. The main residents are Air Terminal Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. On the territory of TOR there are ski resorts and other tourist infrastructure facilities.
TOR "Yuzhnaya" (Sakhalin Region): established in 2016, the main areas are food production, agriculture (plant growing and animal husbandry), warehousing. The total area is 36.8 thousand hectares. The amount of private investment is 8.5 billion rubles. On the territory there are agricultural and processing enterprises.
TOR "Kamchatka" (Primorsky Krai): established in 2015, its main areas are the mining industry (mining of precious stones and minerals), port activities, tourism. Total area - 983 thousand hectares. The amount of private investment - 18.4 billion rubles. At the moment there are more than 30 resident companies of different directions.
TOR "Khabarovsk" (Khabarovsk Territory): established in 2015, the main areas - industry, transport and logistics complex. The total area is 13.6 thousand hectares.The amount of private investment - 33 billion rubles. Currently, 15 investment projects are being implemented in TOR, 25 residents are working, incl. JSC "Khabarovsk International Airport", LLC "Khabarovsk Pipe Plant", etc.
TOR "Komsomolsk" (Khabarovsk Territory): established in 2015, the main directions - industry and tourism. The total area is 8.2 thousand hectares. The amount of private investment is 53.5 billion rubles. Currently, there are 18 resident companies.
TOR "Nikolaevsk" (Khabarovsk Territory): established in 2017, the main directions are fish farming, fishing, shipbuilding, transport. Area - 531.3 thousand hectares. The amount of investment - 412 million rubles. Now there are 4 residents.
TOR "Priamurskaya" (Amur region): established in 2015, the main directions are agriculture and transport. Area - 11.1 thousand hectares The amount of private investment is 124.4 billion rubles. There are 4 resident companies.
TOR "Belogorsk" (Amur Region): established in 2015, the main directions are forest industry, agriculture, industrial and household waste disposal. The area is 3 thousand hectares. The amount of private investment - 4.49 billion rubles. 5 residents are working, 4 investment projects are being implemented.
TOR "Neftekhimichesky" (Primorsky Krai): established in 2017, the main direction is industry The area is 39 thousand hectares. The amount of private investment is 658.7 billion rubles. The first (anchor) resident in September 2017 was the Eastern Petrochemical Company (a subsidiary of Rosneft).
TOR "Nadezhdinskaya" (Primorsky Krai): established in 2015, the main directions are industry and the transport and logistics complex. The area is 3.8 thousand hectares. The amount of investment - 25.6 billion rubles. 36 resident companies operate.
TOR "Mikhailovsky" (Primorye Territory): established in 2015, the main direction is agriculture (animal husbandry and crop production). The area is 171.7 thousand hectares. The amount of private investment is 61.7 billion rubles. 8 residents are working.
TOR "Big Stone" (Primorsky Krai): established in 2016, the main direction is the production of building materials, housing, shipbuilding. The area is 8.1 thousand hectares. The amount of private investment - 210.8 billion rubles. There are 16 residents.
TOR "Amur-Khinganskaya" (Jewish Autonomous Region): established in 2016, the main directions are wood processing, engineering, metallurgy, food industry, tourism development. Area - 23.4 thousandha. The amount of private investments - 15.5 billion rubles. At the moment, there are 6 residents.
Industrial Park "Kangalassy" (Yakutia): appeared in 2013 as a joint project of the administration of Yakutsk and GAU Technopark "Yakutia", in 2015 acquired the status of TOR, the main areas - metallurgy and agriculture. Area - 38.29 million hectares. The amount of investments - 2.6 billion rubles. There are 15 residents.
TOR "Beringovsky" (Chukotka): established in 2015, the main direction - mining. Area - 15.9 million hectares. The amount of private investments - 16.4 billion rubles. Employs 30 residents.
TOR "Svobodny" (Amur Region): established in 2017, the main directions are industry and the transport and logistics complex. Area - 29.44 ha.. Anchor resident - Gazprom processing Blagoveshchensk.
TOR "South Yakutia" (Yakutia): established in 2016, the main areas - mining, industry and transport and logistics complex. Area - 23.29 million hectares. The amount of private investments - 32.7 billion rubles. There are 9 companies-residents.
Discussing the topic of TORs, Candidate of Economic Sciences, Head of the Department of Economic Theory and Public Administration of Amur State University, Maxim Zinchenko notes,what to talk about some intermediate results of their work does not make sense yet: “To my mind, it’s very early to talk about the effectiveness of TOP’s. It’s necessary to go at least five or six years to conclude that this project is worthwhile. > TOR works for a year or two. Some enterprises are just starting to work. More serious enterprises, such as a soybean processing plant, are just starting to work at full capacity this year. Therefore, intermediate results can be brought in at least one year . "
Alexey Timchenko, Chairman of the Primorsky Regional Branch of Business Russia, tells about the problems faced by the territories of advanced development in the Far East and the advantages of such projects: from many factors.The main problem of TOR in the Far East today is a weak accompanying infrastructure: roads, power supply networks and engineering networks, and so on. <...> From my point of view, the bottom of the main advantages of tori today - an opportunity for development of small and medium-sized businesses around such projects.There is a need for a large number of subcontracting work, which is just under the power of quality to carry out local entrepreneurs. <...> For our region, the most promising are industries such as agriculture, manufacturing, logistics - all this fits into the format of TORs. It is also important that these regimes are complemented by the free port regime, as well as the recently adopted decision to create an offshore zone on Russky Island. "
Well, something like this.
The full version of the material with detailed comments of experts can be read here.
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