Vaccination per year: measles, rubella, parotitis. Contraindications and reviews
Children's diseases such as rubella, measles, and parotitis are considered quite common. However, these pathologies are not so safe for babies who were not vaccinated on time. After all, each such disease in its own way is cunning and can lead to serious consequences. To protect the baby from possible complications allows vaccination per year. However, until today, many parents doubt its feasibility. After all, on the one hand, they fear that if a vaccine is not given a year, then a crumb in the future is in grave danger. And on the other hand, there is a fear that the baby will endure the vaccination.
Why do you need a vaccine?
Doctors do not get tired of repeating that one injection can save the baby from many pathologies. The great advantage of vaccination is that such a preventive measure can protect the baby from illnesses that are not even remembered.
The baby is born with passive innate immunity. If the baby is breastfed, the immature organism receives maternal antibodies. From this, his immunity becomes stronger. To increase the protective forces allows hardening and nutrition.
However, such measures are not enough. After all, the baby needs and acquired immunity. It is a necessary addition to the natural. You can get it only by vaccination. That is why the vaccination in 1 year must necessarily be made. After all, acquired immunity cannot be obtained by other methods.
Do I need a vaccination per year? Measles, rubella, and parotitis are diseases that are rare today. To make a choice, consider separately each ailment and the consequences to which they can lead. Indeed, without vaccination, no child can be protected from serious pathologies.
Measles - a disease with consequences
Viral infection is transmitted by air. A baby can become infected by a sneezing, coughing or just talking person. With this, the measles virus is capable of spreading over large areas.
The disease is characterized by the following symptoms:
- hyperthermia (above 39 ° C);
- runny nose;
- severe condition;
- the appearance of a rash.
Infection is highly contagious. When in contact with a sick child, the probability of catching up the illness is 95-96%.
In infants under one year old, measles is extremely rare. After all, crumbs protect maternal antibodies. But after 9-12 months, they disappear from the body of the baby. And the child becomes defenseless before a serious illness. To protect the baby from the disease, is assigned a vaccine in 1 year.
Kids who have not received such a vaccination are at serious risk not only in childhood. They may become infected as adults. During such a period, the disease is much more difficult and often leaves behind a bunch of complications.
- seizures due to hyperthermia;
- blood disorders;
- temporary immunodeficiency state.
A weakened body can be easy prey for any viral ailments. Therefore, think carefully before you refuse vaccination. After all, vaccination of a child in 1 year is simply vital.
What is dangerous rubella?
This is another viral ailment transmitted by air.Toddlers tolerate the disease in mild or moderate form.
The main symptoms of the disease are:
- high temperature (about 38 ° C);
- general malaise;
- swollen lymph nodes in the neck and ears;
- conjunctivitis (only occasionally);
- small rash (initially occurs on the side parts of the body, arms, legs).
Disease rarely causes complications. In some cases, encephalitis may develop. Pathology is extremely dangerous for pregnant women. After all, this infection causes damage to all tissues of the fetus. A child who has not been vaccinated per year can be a serious threat to a woman waiting for a baby. In addition, it is dangerous for an older girl. After becoming pregnant, she will not be protected from serious pathology.
The disease is popularly known as mumps. Airborne viral infection affects the parotid and submandibular salivary glands. They swell up considerably and cause swelling of the face.
The course of the disease is accompanied by symptoms:
- low temperature;
- weakness, malaise;
- enlargement of the glands;
- discomfort when swallowing.
Mumps is very dangerous with possible consequences.
An unvaccinated child may experience the following complications:
- orchitis in boys (inflammation of the testicles, which often leads to infertility);
- meningitis, meningoencephalitis;
- oophoritis in girls (damage to the ovaries, as a result of which a woman can remain childless);
Such situations can be avoided if the baby will be vaccinated in 1 year. Measles, rubella, and parotitis are diseases that do not have antiviral treatment. Therefore, the only method of protection against them is vaccination.
The babies tolerate vaccination fairly easily a year (measles, rubella, parotitis). The reaction to vaccination is observed in a small number of children. According to statistics, only 10-15% of the crumbs experience minor post-immunization symptoms. Parents should be prepared for the manifestations sometimes provoked by vaccination per year.
The body's response to vaccination may be as follows:
- Increased temperature.In babies, sometime after vaccination, hyperthermia may occur. Sometimes the thermometer rises even to 39 ° C. Similar symptoms can occur within 6-12 days after vaccination. As a rule, the increased temperature lasts 1-2 days. Some crumbs can take up to 5 days.Hyperthermia is often accompanied by cough, runny nose, weakness, redness of the throat, body aches. If a child is very bad at suffering such a condition, the pediatrician will recommend giving him antipyretic medicine: Ibuprofen, Paracetamol.
- Allergic reaction.It manifests as a rash. It should be noted that such manifestations are rare. A rash in the form of red spots covers the face, neck, hands. It can also spread to other parts of the body. Such an allergic reaction does not pose a threat to the baby. The rash goes away after a few days. Without causing the child particular discomfort, it leaves no trace behind.
- Swollen lymph nodes.This is a common symptom that occurs in a baby who has been vaccinated annually. The reaction to the vaccine does not endanger the health of the small patient. Some children have an increase in lymph nodes throughout the body. Symptoms persist for several days. Then, like the other manifestations, it disappears without a trace.
- Pain and swelling at the injection site.The baby may be disturbed by the part of the body to which the injection was made.Sometimes there is a slight swelling, compaction of the tissue. Pain or numbness may occur at the injection site. Such symptoms are not terrible. A few days later it passes.
- The reaction of the boys.There may be pain and discomfort in the testicles. At the same time, they visually swell and appear swollen. Such symptoms can deliver unpleasant discomfort to the crumbs. However, it does not pose a threat to life or to reproductive function. This manifestation goes away after a couple of days.
After vaccination is very important to monitor the health of the crumbs. If a child has drowsiness, a slightly increased temperature or a slight indisposition, this is a normal reaction.
It is recommended after vaccination for 30 minutes to sit in the clinic. The house should be measured several times the temperature. If it starts to rise, then the baby needs to be given anti-fever because in some crumbs the temperature is able to grow very quickly. Be sure to report any manifestations to the pediatrician.
Serious complications are extremely rare.
Sometimes a baby may experience:
- Allergy. The characteristic symptoms are swelling and redness at the injection site (more than 8 cm in diameter). A pediatrician will prescribe an ointment that improves blood circulation (“Troxevasin”). For large edema, antihistamines may be recommended for oral administration.
- Neurological pathology.After vaccination may occur febrile seizures. Such symptoms appear only on the background of high temperature. That is why it is recommended not to allow high rates and timely give the baby antipyretic medicine. Paracetamol-based medications are best used.
Contraindications for vaccination
Before being vaccinated per year, the pediatrician will definitely examine the child.
Vaccination may be temporarily postponed if the baby is identified:
- anemia (hemoglobin below 84 g / l);
- colds, infectious diseases;
- recent illness;
- light runny nose
Absolute contraindications for this vaccination are:
Parents should understand that not only from the pathologies described above is vaccinated.
To determine which vaccinations per year are recommended for a child,It is necessary to get acquainted with a special calendar compiled by leading physicians:
- 1 day - the first vaccination against hepatitis;
- from 3 to 7 day - vaccination against tuberculosis;
- 1 month - the second vaccination against hepatitis;
- 3 months - the first vaccine against whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus (DPT) and polio;
- 4.5 months - second DPT + polio vaccination;
- 6 months - the third vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio;
- 1 year - the first revaccination of the CCP (measles, parotitis, rubella);
- 1.5 years - the first revaccination from tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria, polio;
- 20 months - the second revaccination against poliomyelitis.
Babies at risk are recommended a third hepatitis vaccine at 2 months. The fourth vaccination will be repeated in 1 year.
Brief characteristics of vaccinations
Let's take a closer look at the recommended vaccinations:
- BCGThis is a vaccine against tuberculosis. It makes one of the first. A crumb is inoculated in the maternity hospital, since such an infection can very easily enter the body. For infection it is not necessary to have close contact with the patient. Vaccination reduces the risk of infection by almost 15 times. An injection is made in the left shoulder.After a couple of months, a small seal will appear at the injection site. BCG vaccination per year will leave a mark in the form of a neat scar. This is a guarantee that the baby’s body has the necessary protection against severe illness - tuberculosis. The injection site is strictly prohibited to lubricate with antiseptics (brilliant green, iodine). It is recommended to abstain on the day of vaccination against bath procedures.
- DTP. This vaccination is repeated, according to the adopted calendar, three times. In addition, DPT vaccination is prescribed once a year and 6 months. Such vaccination protects the baby from three extremely unpleasant ailments: tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria. After it, all babies form an immunity. This vaccine protects the child from diphtheria for 5 years. It provides protection against whooping cough for 5 - 7 years. Eliminates the risk of tetanus for 10 years. Within 14 days after vaccination, it is recommended to limit the contacts of the baby with others.
- Hepatitis B.Such a virus can be transmitted through blood, urine, saliva. Providing protection in the body of the baby is not easy enough. Therefore, doctors spend the first vaccination in the maternity hospital, when the newborn is not yet 12 hours old. Repeat the procedure in 1 month and 6.It is recommended not to deviate from such a schedule, since the effectiveness of vaccination may significantly decrease. Kids carry this vaccine much easier than other injections.
- Polio.The virus is intestinal. It is transmitted mainly through the selection. In rare cases, infection can occur by air. It is extremely important to protect your baby from polio. After all, the disease can lead to paralysis. In addition, despite the fact that pathology is rare, in nature still live living strain of the virus.
Opinion of parents and doctors
According to statistics, children are fairly easily tolerated by the vaccine per year (measles, rubella, parotitis). Reaction, reviews of doctors and parents fully confirm this is insignificant. There are extremely few children with complications.
Doctors strongly recommend parents not to abandon the mandatory vaccinations. Their opinion is supported by the facts. A few years ago, parents avoided vaccination, deliberately refusing vaccinations. This led to the fact that a lot of guys had weakened immunity. As a result, an outbreak began.Statistics even leads to deaths.
Today's parents very rarely refuse vaccination. Many of them, having heard of possible complications, are very worried and afraid of vaccinations. But still bring their crumbs for compulsory vaccination. In this case, it is they who then claim that the injection was quite successful. Sometimes there is a slight fever, mild runny nose.
Worth thinking about
Parents who refuse vaccination, it is necessary to clearly understand what they are responsible for the future of their baby. After all, it depends only on their decision how strong and healthy the baby will grow. Faced with a serious illness, it is extremely difficult to resist him. And to protect against illness and serious consequences can be a single injection.