Web sites are ... Web sites: description, history, creation and device
Web sites are a collection of electronic pages, united by a common theme, style, and having an interlinked system of links on the Internet.
The site is presented to the user as a whole. Web sites are arrays of data on the world wide web that have unique addresses. Internet pages are served by a web server, which is a special software that delivers content to clients via web protocols. There are the following types of web protocols:
- http is the most well-known protocol;
- https, used to ensure the security of data transmission;
- spdy is a new protocol developed by Google;
- websocket is another more modern protocol that is currently supported by only a few browsers.
There are commercial and non-commercial resources.Commercial websites are a great opportunity to do business on the Internet. You can use such Internet sites to advertise companies and sell goods. Non-profit web pages are projects of an informational nature only.
The history of the creation and development of websites
The creator of the world's first electronic resource is Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at the European Laboratory of Elementary Particles. It was to them in December 1990 that the first web browser was developed, which was called the World Wide Web. The server was based on the NeXTcube.
True, as early as the forties, the scientist Wannerwar (Vanivar) Bush developed the theory that with the help of special technical devices one can expand a person’s memory by indexing information accumulated over the years. According to the scientist, by carrying out such indexation one could quickly find the necessary information.
August 9, 1991 appeared the first online resource. The website was created using the World Wide Web (WWW) technology and the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) data transfer protocol developed using the Uniform Resource Identifier addressing system in the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) programming language.
On the pages of the first Internet resource were placed the settings for the installation and operation of browsers and servers.Scientist Tim Berners-Lee was convinced that hypertext could be the basis for data exchange networks. His first Enquire project (hypertext software) Tim Berners-Lee developed in 1980.
The WWW standard was approved in May 1991 by members of the European Center for Nuclear Research in Geneva (CERN). Specifications HTTP, HTML, URI were approved in 1993. In 1993, the World Wide Web became officially free and free for the whole world.
Device web pages
A webpage is a set of text files in the HTML programming language. HyperText Markup Language creates hyperlinks, inserts images and other multimedia elements into the displayed page, forms texts, and also distinguishes functional elements in them. You can change the page display using the Content Management System (CSS), which allows you to form all the formatting elements in a separate file.
Types of sites for availability
Types of sites on availability:
- closed - available to a narrow circle of users (access to such sites for new users is given through invitations);
- half-open - available after registration;
- open - fully accessible sites for all users on the Internet.
Scheme and nature of the provision of information
According to the scheme of providing information to the user, there are such types of websites:
- Online store. The site consists of product catalogs, through which the client can get acquainted with the product range and make an order online.
- Business cards. Such resources contain data of the owner, company or organizers of the site. Creating a business card website is also an opportunity to post your resume online or sell a specific product.
- Corporate sites. Pages of this type reflect complete information about the company, owners, services, employees. Corporate site is different from the rest of the information.Website development companies, as a rule, requires certain financial costs.
- Personal sites. Blogs contain information about the site owner, can be devoted to any topic.
By the nature of the provision of information, web resources can be divided into:
- mail systems;
- bulletin boards - free sites for placing ads;
- repositories of video, photos and other files (this category includes cloud services like Google.Drive or drains);
- File hosting services are special sites from which you can download and download information.
Technological features of sites
Initially, there was only one technology, which was used to create a website and pages - this is HTML. But resources created in HTML did not have interactivity. Therefore, in the future, developers began to use numerous programming languages and new technologies for writing web pages.
The technological solution of sites are divided into:
- Static sites are resources that consist of static pages: HTML, HTM, DHTML. Files are issued to the user in the form in which they are stored on the server.Such platforms are easy to create and undemanding to hardware resources.
- Dynamic sites are web resources consisting of dynamic HTML, HTM, DHTML pages-templates, information, scripts in the form of separate folders. Pages are not stored unchanged on the server; content is generated on request by special programs based on other data and various sources. Such sites are somewhat more complicated than static ones and need the support of additional technologies.
- Flash sites are interactive sites (with sound, animation, and so on). Resources of this type are difficult to develop, weigh a lot and take a long time to load.
Creating web pages
Website development is the process of creating a web resource or web application. HTML, a special programming language for creating websites and web pages, is a simple set of commands describing the structure of a document. This markup language divides the document into headings, paragraphs, tables, but does not specify formatting attributes.
The website is created in 3 stages:
- Web site design. The development of the appearance of the future resource and the creation of layouts involved web designers.
- Layout. Layout-based layout designer develops ready-made web pages.
- Programming. The programmer on the basis of ready-made templates creates a web resource.
In addition to directly developing, any website requires further administration and support. A separate “headache” of developers and administrators is the security of the website. The concept includes configuring and using HTTPS / HSTS, updating the CMS, regularly changing the login password, and so on. Resource security for users confirms the certificate of the web site.
Internet resources in Russia
The most popular and frequently visited Internet resources in Russia are:
- Yandex search engine;
- social network VKontakte";
- the largest search engine Google;
- Mail.ru Internet portal;
- You Tube video hosting;
- Odnoklassniki social network;
- Facebook social network;
- Avito message board;
- AliExpress online store;
- Wikipedia online encyclopedia.
The listed websites are those resources that account for the largest share of user visits in the Russian-speaking segment of the Internet.