What are the types of ships?
Historians say that navigation and shipping as separate branches of human activity originated about five thousand years ago. The first people who challenged the water element were, apparently, the inhabitants of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Initially, quite urgent needs, and then the craving for the unknown and the thirst for finding new wealth and treasure prompted our ancestors to build boats, set sail and embark on long journeys. Gradually, people mastered the sea, discovered new lands. They learned to catch the wind and make their way through the stars. Since then, mankind has come a long way in the development of the oceans, mastered the art of designing and building different types of ships to achieve economic, military and other purposes. It is this huge way that will be considered in this article, therefore, having read it, you will definitely find something new and interesting for yourself - something that can be shared with friends and close people.After all, history is always relevant and exciting.
How do you call a boat ...
People who are not fully versed in the maritime business tend to call any more or less large craft seen by ships. But real sea wolves will only grin at these explanations. So what is a ship and what are the types of ships? The most capacious term, which covers the full range of boats, is "ship". Even water bikes are ships. Any structure that has a waterproof case and moves, resting on the water surface (including under water), falls into this category. It is also known such a thing as "aircraft". This term is applicable to devices designed to conquer the air.
The term “ship”, in the case of a floating craft, has a narrower meaning and is used to designate, as a rule, military and large sea vessels. In the era of the sailing fleet, the so-called three-masted combat units with direct sailing arms were called. Modern Russian fully admits the use of the concept of “ship” in relation to civilian vessels of various purposes, despite the common opinion among sailors that this vehicle is exclusively a transport carrying a naval flag.At the same time, the phrase “warship” is also correct and is also used as a legal concept.
What are the signs classified marine transport
Civilian ships are usually classified by purpose. There are transport, field, service-auxiliary and floating technical fleet. Transport vessels, in turn, are cargo, passenger, cargo and special. They make up the bulk of the fleet. There are many types of ships engaged in freight transportation. These are bulk carriers (created for bulk cargoes), container ships, lighter carriers (carry floating container-barges), refrigerated and trailer ships, and timber trucks. To cargo also include bulk types of sea transport: tankers and gas carriers. If the ship is able to carry more than twelve passengers, then it is classified as passenger. At the same time, cargo-passenger is the one in which more than 40% of the area is allocated to the cargo. Passenger ships serve regular lines, including trans-ocean. Another class of such vessels is designed for tourist cruises.There are also boats for local communications. Special marine transport includes ferries (including rail), transport tugs and pusher tugs. Thus, we can conclude that there is a huge number of types and classifications of ships, it remains only to learn more about them.
First sailing ships
The most ancient images of sailing ships belong to the third millennium BC. The place of their appearance is the Nile Valley and the Persian Gulf coast. The ancient Egyptians built papyrus boats and equipped them with a sail. On them they could not only move along the Nile, but also go to the sea. It is known about their expeditions along the northeast coast of Africa.
Palm among ancient navigators deservedly conquered the Phoenicians. They created new types of ships. Such means had oars and a rectangular sail. They built not only merchant boats, but also warships. They are credited with the development of the gallery and the invention of the ram. It is believed that the Phoenicians were the first to go around the whole of Africa.
The Greeks adopted from the Phoenicians the art of building ships.They were able to master the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, pass Gibraltar and reach the British Isles. They created birems and trireme - galleys with two- and three-tier arrangement of rows of oars. These were the first types of warships.
Rowers on oars remained the main driver of ships, but with the development and improvement of sailing equipment, the role of the wind also increased. Maritime trade routes to India and the Far East were established, the terms of sea crossings were reduced.
Somewhat later the seas conquer the Vikings. They created the best types of sailing ships of their time. The most famous fame drakkary - military naval craft, characterized by high speed, reliability and lightness. They were adapted for entry into the rivers and mooring to the gently sloping banks. If necessary, the northern warriors carried them in their arms. Shields were fixed along the sides, and the oars were passed through special hatches that protected the rowers during the battle. For trade and transportation of immigrants, the Vikings built knorras - wider and slow-moving, as compared with the drakkars, vessels. Knorra had a greater draft and could hold up to 40 people.Sailing equipment allowed to walk at an angle of 60 degrees to the wind. The masts were removable.
The Vikings could have been away from the coast for a long time, being guided by the sun and night lights. They used observations of the habits of sea animals and birds, took into account the sea currents, ebbs and flows. In their boats they reached Iceland, Greenland and North America. They paved the way from the Varangians to the Greeks, confidently felt in the Mediterranean.
Epoch of great discoveries
The fifteenth century was marked by great voyages and discoveries. This was made possible by the creation of new, more advanced types of marine ships capable of crossing the oceans. It was then that they learned how to build three-masted ships. The method of forming the ship's skin has changed - the boards were assembled not close to one another. The name of the type of plating was the reason for the name of the transport of a new type - caravel. The largest cargo ships at that time were three-masted Portuguese carraks, which had two decks. The hull of the ships had a rounded shape - the ratio of length to width ranged from 2: 1 to 2.5: 1.This allowed us to improve the seaworthiness, increase the safety of long voyages. The main military modes of water transport were still rowing galleys wearing sails.
The main features of the sailing fleet, which survived until the mid-19th century, were outlined in the sixteenth century. It was during this period that European states formed regular navies. Shipbuilders have mastered the new types of ships with a large displacement. Sailing equipment included different types of sails - traditional rectangular and oblique. Special naval guns were created, which began to be placed in several tiers, clearing the upper deck from them.
The main types of ships of the 16th century were military galleys and galleas, military transport galleons, caravels and carraks, transport aaki and flyites.
At the same time, the navy received a combat vessel of a fundamentally new type - the battleship. Its purpose was to gain dominance at sea by destroying enemy water transport with artillery fire. And although the first samples were far from perfect both in terms of seaworthiness and in terms of sailing equipment, the main trend in the development of the navy was outlined.Now the ship became an independent combat unit, whose power was determined not by the presence of rowers and infantry on board, but by its cannon armament and crew training.
In the following decades, the further development of the ideas laid down by Renaissance shipbuilders took place. The types of ships of the 18th century are impressive with their diversity, functionality and aesthetic perfection.
In the 18th century, ships of the line reached the maximum possible size for wooden boats. They were protected by armor, received gun armament of different calibers. Separate battleships carried up to 130 guns. The most powerful was the British fleet, which had up to 100 battleships. At the same time, Russia declared itself as a great maritime state, seizing dominance in the Baltic and the Black Sea. In the era of Peter was built about 60 ships of the line.
The main types of sailing warships were frigates, corvettes and sloops. The frigates, which had the task of capturing water spaces, later became the most common. From the battleships they were distinguished by the presence of a single gun deck. A separate branch of their development were the corvettes - more high-speed units with smaller cannon armament. Sloops led the patrol service, reconnaissance and fighting pirates.They were also assigned transport and expeditionary tasks. To combat other military water transport, they were not involved.
In the merchant navy schooners were widely used. Their distinctive feature was the presence of at least two masts with oblique sails. Large shipments of cargo were assigned to the barges. For the most important people began to build yachts - high-speed comfortable vessels. They transformed into modern types of ships. The photo above shows one of the elite yachts of those times.
In the flibusterskom far blue sea ...
The history of the sailing fleet is inextricably linked with piracy. Of course, no one specifically built any pirate ships. Gentlemen of fortune adapted for the needs of sea robbery different types of ships - that which fell at their disposal. Capture the ship could rebel team. Occasionally this happened with the participation of the captain himself. But most often the pirates made seizures at sea. After that, the ships, as a rule, were altered. The restructuring was primarily to adapt the deck for the installation of powerful artillery and to expand the space for accommodating the boarding team.To do this, all feed and nasal superstructures were removed from the facility, and decorations were cut off. Installed additional guns in the course of the ship back and forth. The rigging was changed in order to give the ship greater speed. Apparently, the pirates did not lack the necessary materials - they also mined them with robbery.
The most common types of pirate ships were brigantines, schooners and sloops. Large boats were rare in the pirate fleet. The corsairs did not disdain even small feluccas, longboats and pinas.
In addition to fighting, the pirates used transport ships. As a rule, they were captured Dutch flutes, as well as their British counterparts - flybots.
Military means of modern times
Modern types of warships, in terms of tasks and weapons, are quite diverse. The list of them is impressive.
The basis of the power of the modern fleet are aircraft carriers and cruisers (including submarines). They are needed to achieve strategic superiority at sea, attack the enemy’s territory, and solve a wide range of military tasks.Destroyer destroyers (destroyers) operate as a part of aircraft strike groups, can independently destroy surface and submarine enemy ships, provide anti-missile and air defense, support the landing of troops. Especially for the fight against submarines and the protection of their connections, large and small anti-submarine ships are used. Rocket designed to deliver unexpected missile strikes at long distances from targets. Mine-defense species provide mine defense. Patrol boats carry patrols. And for the transportation and landing of amphibious assault ships are used. In addition, the modern fleet is unthinkable without the courts of intelligence and control.
Space cards loaded into tablets ...
Even in ancient times, our ancestors dreamed of flying. The tale of a flying ship identified the name of the aircraft, which was destined to conquer the sky. The concepts "spacecraft" and "sky ship" were used by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky to refer to vehicles capable of making a manned flight into space. If we talk about the types of spacecraft, then first you need to turn to the concept of "spacecraft."By this is meant a device that is designed to perform various tasks in space, as well as on the surface of celestial bodies. The category of those includes artificial satellites of the Earth, and interplanetary stations, and planet rovers. A spacecraft that is designed to transport cargo or people into space is called a spacecraft. Its main difference is hermetic compartments or compartments that support the life support mode.
Types of spacecraft are classified by type of cargo delivered, control method, return capacity and reusable use. They are cargo, automatic and manned. Piloted ships contain descent vehicles. There are also reusable cargo and manned vehicles. Among the most famous are East, Soyuz, Apollo, Shenzhou, and the Space Shuttle.
We met only some - the most famous - types of ships. The list can be continued for a very long time And it is unlikely to be exhaustive. Because the flight of human fantasy is limitless, and the challenges posed by life, encourage designers and engineers to find new solutions. Who knows what the ships will be after just a hundred years.and what new spaces they will have to conquer ... One can only guess at the present time. The main thing is to know what types of ships are now. And we told you about it.