What is helminthiasis? What do worms look like? Signs and causes of infection
According to WHO, there are 1.5 million cases of helminthiasis in the world each year. Of course, most suffer from the disease in tropical countries with hot climates. According to reliable sources, parasites are found in almost every second inhabitant of the planet.
Moreover, a high probability of infection in people who are often in contact with pets. To combat the pathology it is necessary to observe a number of rules and to undergo de-worming in a timely manner. The way the worms look, depends on their appearance. In this we are today and we will understand.
The main types of worms-worms
The classification of helminthiasis varieties was fully formed in the 20th century. It was carried out by experienced specialists who scientifically substantiated the information received. About 400 types of parasitic forms can occur in humans.In our country, only 70 are registered.
Trematodes (flatworms, or flukes)
What do worms of this class look like? The length of an adult individual ranges from a millimeter to two centimeters. For movement and fixation, it serves special suckers (peritoneum and mouth). In addition, the entire body of the worm is covered with small spikes, which facilitate attachment to the organ. In small individuals, the digestive system resembles a small bag. In larger parasites, it is branched and performs another transport function.
From trematode eggs trapped in a moist environment, mobile larvae are formed, covered with hairs, which serve to penetrate the tissues of the human body. There is their final development. The main habitat is the digestive tract, lungs and blood vessels.
Parasites have an elongated body, consisting of the neck, head and segments (about 1000 pieces). Their length often reaches 10 cm. Mature segments often undergo complete destruction while in the intestine. Their eggs enter the rectum and come out with feces.
One and the same species can have several variations of development: the change of two hosts, the death at the egg stage and the release of the intermediate host from the body.It is easy to imagine how the worms look: they resemble white or transparent strings. The photo can be considered in more detail the parasites.
These include pinworms, roundworm, whipworm and trichinae. All of them have an elongated filament body with a circular cross section. Sometimes white worms grow to 40 cm. This species has females and males. Females are able to lay up to two hundred eggs daily. Their larvae quickly adapt to conditions and can develop up to 40 days in the small intestine.
Worm invasion is widespread in both adults and children. Pathology can be identified using certain tests: scraping from the anus and feces. It is advisable to conduct research several times, because the eggs may not immediately show up. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctor prescribes a complex therapy with the use of anti-parasitic drugs and folk remedies. After treatment, you should pass a control analysis for worms. The photo reliably shows the appearance of the worm. Now let's consider the main ways of infection:
- gross lack of personal hygiene (unwashed hands after the street);
- close tactile contact with pets that have not been vaccinated;
- through raw water;
- eating raw or half-baked meat or fish;
- eating dirty fruits and vegetables;
- through insect bite.
An infected person can reinfect itself. It happens quite easily. The female starts laying eggs only at night, she crawls out of the rectum and leaves the larva in huge numbers near the anus. This causes severe itching. In the process of scratching on the hands of the patient, on the underwear and bedding there are eggs that easily penetrate back into the body. To protect yourself from relapse, you should regularly wash your hands, daily iron the bed and change the linen.
Parasites easily migrate through the blood vessels to various internal organs and infect them, causing the strongest intoxication of the body. Depending on the habitat of the worm (a particular organ) and its type, certain symptoms occur. For example, when a parasite hits the lungs, a barking cough is observed, if it affects the liver, then the person has pain sensations on the right side of the hypochondrium.
Signs of the acute form usually appear around the second week of the disease, less often after a month. The main characteristic symptoms are:
- swelling of the face;
- rashes of a polymorphic nature;
- sometimes diarrhea;
Children have a sore throat, there are frequent cases of migrating pneumonia and damage to the nervous system. A permanent symptom is an allergic reaction - the number of eosinophils increases in the blood. In the absence of specific therapy, after about a few months, the disease becomes chronic. At the same time, allergy often persists until anaphylactic shock.
Cestodiasis and nematodoses affecting the intestinal tract, cause dyspeptic disorders, pain in the abdomen and in the right side. The patient has severe weakness, especially in small children. Decreased performance, there is lethargy and fatigue. A severe condition is observed in the larval and tropical helminthiasis, especially with severe damage to the heart, brain, lungs and organs of vision.
At the first suspicion of parasitic invasion, immediately undergo diagnosis. Everyone should know how worms look and how dangerous they are to understand the consequences of the disease and prevent them.