Where is Brazil? Climate, relief and other features of the country
Impassable jungle, winding deep rivers, exotic animals, warm sea and the most famous beaches - this is how Brazil usually describes. It is also one of the largest countries in the world by area, the leader in the cultivation of coffee and sugar cane. Want to know more? In this article we will talk about the main characteristics of Brazil.
The Federative Republic of Brazil is one of the largest states in the world. With an area of 8,515,770 km², it occupies about 5.7% of the total land mass of the Earth. Where is Brazil? It is located on the continent of South America. From the east and partly from the north, the country is washed by the Atlantic Ocean. In addition to Ecuador and Chile, it borders with all countries on the mainland.
Brazil is inhabited by 212 million people. In the past, she was a colony of Portugal, and now she is one of the few countries in the world where Portuguese is the official language.The country gained its independence in 1822 and since then it is going on its own way.
Brazil’s favorable agricultural climate, its mineral wealth, and skillfully built economy have made it the most developed among the Mercosur countries, and indeed throughout Latin America. The Republic exports coffee, orange juice, sugar, soybeans, iron ore, niobium, steel, shoes, manufactures cars, aviation and computer equipment.
Equatorial, subtropical and tropical natural zones are represented on the territory of the country. Although it is too gross division. In general, Brazil’s climate can be described as hot and humid, with an average country temperature of 20 ° C. However, even within the same natural zone, it is very different and varies from northwest to southeast.
In the region of the Amazon lowland conditions remain virtually unchanged throughout the year. Average temperatures fluctuate by a maximum of 2-3 degrees and stay at 24-26 ° C. Humidity in this region is extremely increased (80-98%), and showers last 18 days a year, not stopping from season to season.
This type of climate covers the entire coast, but here it is also influenced by the Atlantic Ocean.Precipitation is half as much as in the Amazon, and temperatures range from 18 to 26 ° C. On the southeastern coast, precipitation increases by summer, and in the northeast, by autumn and winter.
On the Brazilian and Guiana highlands, on the outskirts of the Amazon lowland, the climate varies by season. Winters are usually dry and relatively cool. Summer, on the contrary, is wet and warm. Approximately 5 months a year the drought season lasts with extremely small rainfall.
The driest place in Brazil is the extreme northeast. Here, average temperatures reach 27 ° C, rain falls irregularly and extremely rarely. In the high-altitude areas of the Atlantic Plateau, Brazil’s climate is also uneasy. In the summer there are usually showers. The temperature rises to a maximum of 22 ° C. In winter, there are even frosts.
The relief of Brazil is not the same and is represented by alternating hills, mountains and valleys. In the north-west of the country is located lowland. It covers the Amazon Valley and covers an area of 1.8 km2.
To the northeast, lowland passes into the Guiana Highlands. In the south, east and in the center is the Brazilian Plateau. Its height increases to the east and ranges from 500 to 2000 meters.The highest point, Mount Bandeira, reaches 2897 meters.
Along the coast stretches the Atlantic Plain. Near the ocean, it is represented by swamps, sandy beaches and lagoons. In the south-west there is an extensive flooded depression Pantanal, which is used as pasture.
The territory where Brazil is located is covered by a dense river system. Most of the country belongs to the Amazon basin, extending through four more countries. It is the deepest river with the largest basin in the world.
The Amazon extends to almost 7,000 km and, along with all its tributaries, covers
7,180,000 km². Her regime is influenced by ocean tidal waves. Periodically, the river overflows its banks, flooding the valley within 90 km.
The northern and southern tributaries of the river are located in different hemispheres, which is reflected in its full-flow. When the floods on one side end, on the other - begin. The yellow and muddy Amazon annually replenishes the oceans with 7 thousand cubic meters of water. Its runoff is 15% of the total runoff of all rivers of the planet.
From wet forests to desert cacti
Brazil's vegetation is as diverse as its climate and topography.In the Amazonian lowland grow wet equatorial forests of the jungle, represented by ferns, mosses, lianas, orchids, cocoa, tall trees with a crown branching only at the top. Here are the largest in the world of water lilies.
In the extreme northeast, where rainfall is too low, there are only low bushes and cacti. In the mouths of rivers on the coast grow mangroves. The Brazilian Highlands are covered with tropical and subtropical species, dropping foliage during a drought.
In addition, savannas, prairies, araucaria and gallery forests are found in the country. On its territory grows more than 100 species of palm trees, 400 valuable tree species, cereals, reeds, sedges, all kinds of herbs and flowers.
Brazil is one of the first places in the number of amphibians, birds and reptiles living on its lands. There are many exotic and rare species in the country. But because of human activity, most of them are on the verge of extinction.
In the waters of the Amazon are found piranhas, capable of eating a large animal in just a few minutes. This is where many aquarium species of fish come from, for example, angelfish, guppies, swordtails.In the Amazonian jungle you can find caimans, tapirs, cougars, leopards, Saymir monkeys and guaribas.
Brazil has the smallest rodent in the world, a capybara about one meter in size. Also found here is the anaconda snake, or water boa, which may well swallow the caiman or the whole boar.